Which element in second period has maximum covalency?
Is it boron or carbon?

Dear student

 The total number of orbitals available in valence shell is known as covalency whether orbitals are completely filled or empty.
The electronic configuration of  Boron (Atomic number 5)  is 1s2 2s2 2p1 and Carbon is 1s2 2s2  2p2 . So, there are only two shells. The valence shell contains one 2s orbital and three 2p orbitals resulting total four orbitals in the valence shell. Therefore, Boron and carbon restricted to a maximum covalency of 4 since only four (one s and three p) orbitals are available for bonding.

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