why does india have a monsoon type of climate?rn
The following factors are responsible for the monsoon type of climate in India:
- The phenomenon of monsoon refers to the seasonal reversal of winds. The offshore winds that blow from north-east direction are reversed into onshore south western winds. This phenomenon is based upon differential heating of land and ocean bodies. During summer in the Indian subcontinent, the large landmass gets heated up more rapidly than the neighbouring seas. As a result, the air above land expands and rises up. The moisture laden winds arrive on the western coast of India from the south western side and cause heavy rainfall on the windward side of the Western Ghats. The leeward side, however, receives little rain. Further rain occurs in the northern plains and north-east parts of India with the branching of the monsoon. The monsoon is also aided by the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone or monsoon trough near the equator where winds from northern and southern hemisphere merge. The landmass of the Indian subcontinent cools up around September with the sun retreating south. The ocean bodies, which lose heat slowly, retain the summer heat. The cooler high pressure air moves towards the low pressure over the ocean and causes the retreating north-east monsoon. It mainly causes rainfall along the eastern coast of India.
The word “Monsoon” is derived from the Arabic word ‘Mausim’ which literally means season. Monsoon refers to the seasonal reversal in the wind direction during a year. The monsoon winds are confined to the tropical area roughly between 20ON to 20OS latitudes. But in the Indian subcontinents, because of the Himalayan ranges, they bring the whole subcontinent under the sway of the moist bearing winds for 2 - 5 months roughly between May to October. Almost 90% rainfall in India is due to these monsoon winds. India would have been an arid land or desert if there had been no phenomena of monsoons. It is because of these reasons that the climate of India is described as monsoon type.