why Na+ ion has 1 less electron than Na

Dear student

A cation is formed when a metal atom loses electrons.
Na(2,8,1) has 11 electrons. When Na loses an electron, it forms Na+ (2,8) which has 10 electrons,
Na  $\stackrel{-{e}^{-}}{\to }$Na+
Thus Na+ has one electron less than Na

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