write a short note on indian river system

  •  The Indian River system is divided into two groups- the Himalayan Rivers and the 
  • Peninsular Rivers.
  •  The Himalayan Rivers
  •  They have water all throughout the year and originate from the mountains in the 
  • north. They flow through the mountains and form gorges.
  •  Himalayan rivers cover long routes before falling into the sea.
  •  Erosion activities in the upper courses. Hence, they bring loads of sand and silt 
  • on their way down and deposit it in the lower courses.
  •  In the middle and lower courses, these rivers form meanders, oxbow lakes and deltas. 
  • The Peninsular Rivers
  •  Seasonal rivers i.e. they depends on rainfall.
  •  They have short courses as compared to the Himalayan Rivers.
  •  They flow through the plateaus and low hills and hence, they are not as fast 
  • flowing as the Himalayan rivers.
  •  The Himalayan Rivers
  •  The Indus River System
  •  Originates from Lake Mansarovar in Tibet and enters India through Ladakh in 
  • Jammu and Kashmir.
  •  The Zaskar, the Nubhra, the Shyok and the Hunza join the Indus in Kashmir.
  •  The Satluj, the Ravi, the Chenab, the Beas and the Jhelum together join Indus at
  • Mithankot in Pakistan. Indus merges with the Arabian Sea near Karachi in 
  • Pakistan.
  •  Length is 2900 km. It is one of the longest rivers in the world.
  •  The Ganga River System
  •  The Ganga originates from the Gangotri Glacier in Uttarakhand in the form of 
  • Bhagirathi river.
  •  The Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda rivers join together at Devprayag and form 
  • the Ganga river. The Ganga enters the plains at Haridwar in Uttarakhand.
  •  Major tributaries of the Ganga are the Yamuna, the Ghaghara, the Gandak and 
  • the Kosi.
  •  The Yamuna originates from the Yamunotri Glacier in the Himalayas and joins 
  • Ganga at Allahabad.
  •  The Kosi, the Ghaghara and the Gandak originate from the Nepal Himalayas.
  • They are flood prone rivers and cause heavy damage to life and property during 
  • floods.
  •  The Chambal, the Betwa and the Son are the tributaries of the Ganga that 
  • originate from the peninsular plateau.
  •  The Northenmost point of the Ganga delta is Farakka in West Bengal. The river 
  • splits here and Bhagirathi-Hooghly (distributary) flows south into the Bay of 
  • Bengal; the main stream is joined by the Brahmaputra in Bangladesh and 
  • eventually falls into the Bay of Bengal forming the Sunderbans delta. Length of 
  • the Ganga is 2400 km.
  •  The Brahmaputra River System
  •  The Brahmaputra originates in Tibet, very close to the origins of the Indus and
  • the Satluj.
  •  It flows from West to East parallel to the Himalayas and enters India through 
  • Arunachal Pradesh after taking a U-turn at Namcha Barwa.
  •  It is called Dihang in Arunachal Pradesh and is joined by tributaries such as the 
  • Lohit and the Dibang.These together form the Brahmaputra in Assam.
  •  Brahmaputra creates many riverine islands, the largest in the world being Majuli 
  • (in Assam).
  •  The Brahmaputra is a flood prone river owing to huge deposits of silt on its bed 
  • that cause the overflowing of the river during monsoons.
  •  The Peninsular Rivers
  •  The Western Ghats form the main water divide in Peninsular India. The rivers that 
  • originate towards its West flows Westwards and fall into the Arabian Sea and those 
  • rising towards its East flow Eastwards and join the Bay of Bengal.

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