write gandhi ji biography

महात्मा गांधी का जन्म गुजरात के 'पोरबंदर' नामक शहर में 2 अक्टूबर, 1869 को हुआ था। इनके पिता का नाम 'करमचंद गांधी' था। इसलिए इनका पूरा नाम 'मोहनदास करमचंद गांधी' था। इनके पिता राजकोट के दीवान के पद पर कार्यरत थे। गांधीजी की माताजी का नाम 'पुतली बाई' था। इनकी माताजी बहुत धर्मपरायण स्त्री थीं। गांधीजी पर अपनी माताजी का अधिक प्रभाव देखने को मिलता है। इनका विवाह अल्पायु में 'कस्तूरबा गांधी' से कर दिया गया था। इनकी आरम्भिक शिक्षा भारत में हुई थी। परन्तु 'बैरिस्टरी' की डिगरी इन्होंने 'इंग्लैण्ड' से प्राप्त की थी। भारत आकर इन्होंने 'मुंबई' को अपनी कर्मस्थली बनाया और वकालत आरंभ कर दी। परन्तु अपने सिद्धांतों के कारण वे इस कार्य को ज्यादा समय तक नहीं कर पाए। तंग आकर इन्होंने एक फर्म के साथ अनुबंद्ध करके 'दक्षिण अफ्रीका' में 'नेटाल' जाना स्वीकार किया। दक्षिण अफ्रीका भी गुलामी की जंजीरों में जकड़ा हुआ था। गांधीजी को वहाँ पर अंग्रेज़ों द्वारा रंग-भेद की नीति का शिकार बनना पड़ा। इसका गांधीजी पर गहरा असर पड़ा और इन्होंने सत्याग्रह की पहली चिंगारी सुलगाई। 1915 में गांधीजी अपने देश भारत लौट आए। इन्होंने देश आकर भेदभाव का विरोध करना आरंभ कर दिया। 1917 में गांधीजी द्वारा चलाए गए 'चम्पारन' और 'खेड़ा सत्याग्रह' आंदोलन से इन्हें अपार सफलता मिली। इसके बाद तो वे सबके प्रिय बापू हो गए। 13 अप्रैल, 1919 में 'जरनल डायर' के द्वारा 'जलियांवाला बाग हत्याकांड' ने पूरे देश में सनसनी फैला दी थी। इस घटना ने गांधीजी पर भी गहरा आघात किया। फिर क्या था, इन्होंने इसके विरोध में 1920 में 'असहयोग आंदोलन' छेड़ दिया। उसके पश्चात 1930 में 'नमक सत्याग्रह' और अन्त में 1942 में 'अंग्रेज़ों भारत छोड़ो' का नारा पूरे देश में प्रसारित कर दिया गया। इसके लिए इन्हें तोड़ने की भरसक कोशिशें भी की गई। परन्तु उन्हें झुकाया नहीं जा सकता और देश को आज़ादी प्राप्त हो गई।

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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi(pronounced[ˈmoːɦənd̪aːs ˈkərəmtʃənd̪ ˈɡaːnd̪ʱi](listen); 2 October 1869 30 January 1948) was the preeminent leader ofIndian nationalisminBritish-ruled India. Employingnonviolentcivil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. ThehonorificMahatma(Sanskrit: "high-souled", "venerable"[2])—applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa,[3]—is now used worldwide. He is also calledBapu(Gujarati: endearment for "father",[4]"papa"[4][5]) in India.

Born and raised in a Hindu,merchant caste, family in coastalGujarat,western India, and trained in law at theInner Temple, London, Gandhi first employed nonviolent civil disobedience as an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, in the resident Indian community's struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants, farmers, and urban labourers to protest against excessive land-tax and discrimination. Assuming leadership of theIndian National Congressin 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for easing poverty, expanding women's rights, building religious and ethnic amity, endinguntouchability, but above all for achievingSwarajor self-rule.

Gandhi famously led Indians in challenging the British-imposed salt tax with the 400km (250mi)Dandi Salt Marchin 1930, and later in calling for the British toQuit Indiain 1942. He was imprisoned for many years, upon many occasions, in both South Africa and India. Gandhi attempted to practise nonviolence and truth in all situations, and advocated that others do the same. He lived modestly in aself-sufficient residential communityand wore the traditional Indiandhotiand shawl, woven with yarn hand spun on acharkha. He ate simple vegetarian food, and also undertook longfastsas means of both self-purification and social protest.

Gandhi's vision of a free India based on religious pluralism, however, was challenged in the early 1940s by a new Muslim nationalism which was demanding a separate Muslim homeland carved out of India.[6]Eventually, in August 1947, Britain granted independence, but theBritish Indian Empire[6]waspartitionedinto twodominions, a Hindu-majorityIndiaand MuslimPakistan.[7]As many displaced Hindus, Muslims, andSikhsmade their way to their new lands, religious violence broke out, especially in thePunjabandBengal. Eschewing theofficial celebration of independencein Delhi, Gandhi visited the affected areas, attempting to provide solace. In the months following, he undertook severalfasts unto deathto promote religious harmony. The last of these, undertaken on 12 January 1948 at age 78,[8]also had the indirect goal of pressuring India to pay out some cash assets owed to Pakistan.[8]Some Indians thought Gandhi was too accommodating.[8][9]Among them wasNathuram Godse, aHindu nationalist, who assassinated Gandhi on 30 January 1948 by firing three bullets into his chest at point-blank range.[9]

Gandhi is commonly, though not officially,[10]considered theFather of the Nation[11]in India. His birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there asGandhi Jayanti, anational holiday, and world-wide as theInternational Day of Nonviolence.

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Mohandas Gandhi is considered the father of the Indian independence movement. Gandhi spent 20 years in South Africa working to fight discrimination. It was there that he created his concept of satyagraha, a non-violent way of protesting against injustices. While in India, Gandhi's obvious virtue, simplistic lifestyle, and minimal dress endeared him to the people. He spent his remaining years working diligently to both remove British rule from India as well as to better the lives of India's poorest classes. Many civil rights leaders, including Martin Luther King Jr., used Gandhi's concept of non-violent protest model for their own struggles.

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