Write Short note on
a. ADR
c. IDR

Dear Student,
a. Global Depository Receipts (GDR's)- These are the receipts issued by depository banks against the shares of a company. For instance, the share issued by the Indian company abroad in order to raise foreign currency. These depository receipts are usually denoted in US dollars and can easily be converted into shares at any point of time. However, GDRs can be listed and traded on the stock exchange of any foreign country other than America.

b. American Depository Receipts (ADR's)- These are receipts of the companies based in the USA. They are usually traded like any other securities in the market; however, such trading is restricted to the American securities markets only. In addition to this, such instruments are sold only to the American citizens.
c. Indian Depository Receipts(IDR's)-Indian depository receipt ia s receipt which is issued only to Indian citizens.Through IDR foreign company can raise the fund from Indian market.IDR provides access to more liquid markets and also provide funds for lower costs and better terms.It helps to exploit international demand for shares of the company.


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ADR- It is American Depository Receipt which was issued only for American Citizens or Companies. In this Receipt only American Dollars will be Issued. Any American Bank functioning as a Depository can issue ADR.

GDR- It is Global Depository Receipt which was issued against issue of Equity Shares in Global Market. The Shares issued against GDR are held by An International Bank called Depository. These Shares are called Depository Shares. In this Receipt was also made in Dollars. GDR was First Introduced in 1990 by Citibank.

IDR- It is Indian Depository Receipt which is Issued only to Indian Citizens. But, through IDR, foreign Companies can raise the fund from Indian Market. The first Global Company to file for an Issue of IDR in India is Standard Chartered Bank.
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ADR- It stands for American Depository Received by the help of which domestic company can raise fund from America.In this shares of Indian company delivered to the depositery which transferred such shares to the custodians.It does not have voting right. It easily transfer shares from one person to another.
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