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Page No 6:

Question A.2:

Now that you have read a substantial part of the feature article, work with your partner and jot down at least five reasons that, according to you, are mainly responsible for Indians today not getting the desired quota of sleep each night.

Answer:

Five main reasons responsible for Indians not getting the desired quota of sleep each night today are:

1. High level of stress

2. Unhealthy lifestyle

3. Lack of time

4. Demanding professional life

5. Demanding personal life



Page No 6:

Question A.3(a):

The direct result of lack of sleep is _____________________.

Answer:

The direct result of lack of sleep is ailments and illnesses.



Page No 6:

Question A.3(b):

Why is it important for physicians to ‘wake up’ to sleep disorders? How will it help?

Answer:

Many sleep disorder experts think that lack of sleep is the reason for many ailments. Therefore, it is important for physicians to ‘wake up’ to sleep disorders so that they can detect illnesses at an early stage.



Page No 6:

Question A.3(c):

What do you understand by sleep deficit? Why does the amount of sleep required to rejuvenate people vary from one person to another

Answer:

According to Dr. Jeffrey Lipsitz, a Canadian expert on sleep disorders, on an average, a healthy adult requires just over eight hours of sleep at night. Joseph De Koninck, a renowned professor of psychology, is of the opinion that if one consistently gets less sleep than one needs, then "a sleep deficit accumulates." The amount of sleep required to rejuvenate people varies from one person to another as there is no fixed number of hours for which humans need to sleep.



Page No 6:

Question A.3(d):

Why does the writer refer to the 'early to bed...' principle?

Answer:

A recent survey conducted in India shows that twenty-nine percent of Indians sleep only after midnight and sixty-one percent sleep for seven hours or less. The survey also arrived at a conclusion that Indians are among the world's earliest risers, with sixty-four percent getting out of bed before 7 a.m. By using this phrase, the writer wants to show that ‘early rise’ is a good habit only if the principle of ‘early to bed’ is followed.



Page No 6:

Question A.4:

Now, write a letter to your school-going younger brother or sister who is sleep-deprived. Advise him or her to make lifestyle changes to his/her daily schedule in order to get the desired hours of sleep daily.

Answer:

This question is to be answered on the basis of your own understanding, experience and thoughts. It is strongly recommended that you prepare the solution on your own. However, a sample solution has been provided for your reference.

Dear Balbeer,

I am aware that you are preparing for your X standard board exams this year. As you know, there is a lot of pressure associated with board exams in our country. I have noticed that lately, pressure has been getting to you too. You come home very late at night and leave very early. Mother tells me that you have not been eating properly as well. If you carry on with such a lifestyle then it is going to be harmful to your health in a long run.

I have some suggestions that you could follow for your own well being. First of all, don’t get worked up about the board exams. They are simply exams and nothing more than that. Secondly, get organized. Make a schedule and organise the subjects that you need to study and the amount of time you can spend on each of them. Thirdly, you must sleep at least 7 hours a day in order to remain healthy. Finally, eat very well and do not skip a single meal. I know that this is a tough time in every student’s life. However, remember what George Herbert said: ‘Living well is the best revenge.’

Yours truly,

Satvinder.



Page No 7:

Question A.5(a):

Now look through the unit of Health and Medicine, figure out the phrasal verbs that you come across and list them.

Answer:

A few examples of phrasal verbs from this unit are:

dead tired

pull off

cut down

eat well

sleep well



Page No 7:

Question A.5(b):

Find words from the article which mean the same as the following:

i. compel (para1)

ii. evade (para 2)

iii. revitalize (para 6)

iv. amass ( para 6)

v. oppose (para 7)

vi. restate (para 8)

Answer:

The meanings of the given words are:

i. compel (para1): forced

ii. evade (para 2): elude

iii. revitalize (para 6): rejuvenate

iv. amass ( para 6): accumulates

v. oppose (para 7): counter

vi. restate (para 8): reiterate



Page No 9:

Question A.7:

Find the words from the final part of the above article that you have just finished reading which mean the same as the words or group of words given below.

(a) Vital, very important (para 1): _____________________________

(b) the quality of being prone to or open to dangers, like a disease or infection or a weakness (para 1): _____________________________

(c) a wide range (para)1): _____________________________

(d) very badly, in a damaging way (para 4): _____________________________

(e) a problem that has persisted for quite some time (para 5):

Answer:

The meanings of the given words or group of words are:

(a) Vital, very important (para 1): Crucial

(b) the quality of being prone to or open to dangers, like a disease or infection or a weakness (para 1): Susceptibility

(c) a wide range (para1): Array

(d) very badly. in a damaging way (para 4): Adversely

(e) a problem that has persisted for quite some time (para 5): Chronic



Page No 10:

Question A.8(1):

Lack of sleep

(a) decreases laziness.

(b) weakens the body’s capacity to combat diseases.

(c) helps youngsters to do well in their examinations.

(d) prevents a person from gaining weight.

Answer:

Lack of sleep: (b) weakens the body’s capacity to combat diseases.



Page No 10:

Question A.8(2):

Natural killer cells

(a) make a person look old pretty quickly.

(b) are produced in large numbers when we stay awake.

(c) help us fight viruses and bacteria.

(d) work well even for sleep-deprived people.

Answer:

Natural killer cells: (c) help us fight viruses and bacteria.



Page No 10:

Question A.8(3):

C-reactive protein

(a) when produced more in the body causes heart failure.

(b) prevents us from having a good night’s sleep.

(c) helps us to sleep peacefully.

(d) assists in destroying natural killer cells.

Answer:

C-reactive protein: (c) helps us to sleep peacefully.



Page No 10:

Question A.8(4):

If we don’t sleep well,

(a) we may lose our appetite.

(b) we may become very thin.

(c) our brain might stop functioning in a balanced manner.

(d) production of brain chemicals would increase.

Answer:

If we don’t sleep well: (c) our brain might stop functioning in a balanced manner.



Page No 10:

Question A.9:

Lack of sleep has a direct effect on the production of three hormones and brain neurotransmitters, which in turn have a bearing on our health.

Complete the table below to show the above.

Lack of sleep Effect on the production of Ultimate effect on us

(a) Leptin __________________________________________________

(b) Ghrelin __________________________________________________

(c) Cortisol __________________________________________________

(d) brain neurotransmitters ___________________________________________

Answer:

Lack of sleep

Effect on the production of

Ultimate effect on us

(a)

Leptin

The appetite-suppressing hormone

Decreases

(b)

Ghrelin

The hormone controlling hunger pangs

Increases hunger

(c)

Cortisol

Stress hormone

Increases fat storage

(d)

Brain neurotransmitters

The chemicals that deliver messages between nerve cells in the brain

Our brain chemicals deplete and this leads to emotional disturbances like depression, anxiety and general feelings of sadness, anger and irritation.



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