Surface Areas and Volumes

We come across many figures in our daily life that are made up of two or more solid figures. Let us consider such an example.

A company produces metallic solid toys that are in the shape of a cylinder with one hemisphere and one cone stuck to their opposite ends. The length of the entire toy is 30 cm; the diameter of the cylinder is 14 cm, while the height of the cone is 10 cm.

**Can we find out how much metal should the company order to make 200 toys of this type?**

Let us take help of the given video to understand method required to calculate volume of figures made up of two or more basic figures and hence find the answer to the above problem.

In this way, we can find the volume of any solid figure which is formed by combining two or more basic solids. Let us now look at some more examples.

**Example 1:**

**A largest cone is to be taken out from a cube of edge 15 cm. Find the volume of the remaining portion. (Use π = 3.14)**

**Solution:**

The figure can be drawn as follows:

It is given that length of the cube, *l* = 15 cm

The base of the cone is a circle whose diameter is equal to the length of the edge of the cube.

∴ Radius of cone, *r* = cm

The height of the cone would be equal to the height of cube.

∴ Height of cone, *h* = 15 cm

Volume of the remaining portion = Volume of Cube − Volume of Cone

=

=

= 3375 − 883.125

= 2491.875 cm^{3}

Thus, the volume of the remaining portion is 2491.875 cm^{3}.

**Example 2:**

**A plastic toy is in the following shape. The diameter of the cylindrical shape is 7 cm, but the bottom of the toy has a hemispherical raised portion. The top of the toy is a cone of same base. If the height of the cylinder is 21 cm and cone is 4 cm, find the amount of air inside the toy. (Use π =)**

**Solution:**

Diameter of the cylinder = 7 cm

Radius of cylinder, *r* = cm

r =, is also the radius for cone and hemisphere.

Height of the cylinder, *H* = 21 cm

Height of the cone, *h *= 4 cm

∴ Volume of the toy = Volume of cylinder + Volume of Cone − Volume of

Hemisphere

= 770 cm^{3}

Thus, the volume of air inside the given toy is 770 cm^{3}.

**Example 3:**

**A right triangle, whose perpendicular sides are 30 cm and 40 cm, is made to revolve about its hypotenuse. Find the volume of figure so obtained in terms of π.**

**Solution:**

Let ABD be a right-angled triangle, such that AB = 30 cm and AD = 40 cm.

Using Pythagoras theorem, we have

BD^{2} = AB^{2} + AD^{2}

BD^{2} =

BD = cm

After revolution, we have the following figure.

L…

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