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Page No 52:

Question 1:

With reference to what you have read in this chapter, discuss the influence of China on Vietnam’s culture and life.


The influence of China on Vietnam’s culture and life was multifarious before the French colonised Vietnam. Even when the latter gained independence in 1945, the rulers maintained the use of Chinese governance systems and culture. The elites were vastly influenced by Chinese culture and life, as has been elucidated in Phan Boi Chau’s book “The History of the Loss of Vietnam”. Chinese language and Confucianism were followed by the upper classes in Vietnam. In 1911, when the Chinese Republic was set up, Vietnamese students followed suit in organising the Association for the Restoration of Vietnam. Vietnamese men also kept their hair long—a Chinese tradition.

Page No 52:

Question 2:

What was the role of religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feeling in Vietnam?


Religious groups played a very significant role in the development of anti-colonial feeling in Vietnam. Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mix of Buddhism, Confucianism and local customs. Christianity looked down upon their reverence for the supernatural. In 1868, the Scholars’ Revolt protested against the tyrannical spread of Christianity, and though the movement was defeated, it inspired others to follow suit. The Hoa Hao movement in 1939 drew upon popular religious ideas of the nineteenth century, and its leader Huynh Phu So was a famous entity. These groups were not in tandem with political parties which tended to look down upon their activities with discomfort. Nevertheless, religious movements were successful in arousing anti-imperialist tendencies in the Vietnamese people.

Page No 52:

Question 3:

Explain the causes of the US involvement in the war in Vietnam. What effect did this involvement have on life within the US itself?


The US got involved in the war in Vietnam because it feared that a communist government would come to power in Vietnam after the National Liberation Front formed a coalition with the Ho Chi Minh government in the north, against Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime. US policy-planners feared a spread of communism to other countries in the area.

This involvement in the Vietnam war affected life within the US itself because of widespread public dissent. Only university graduates were exempt from compulsory service in the army and this caused even more anger amongst the minorities and working-class families.

Page No 52:

Question 4:

Write an evaluation of the Vietnamese war against the US from the point of

(a) a porter on the Ho Chi Minh trail.

(b) a woman soldier.


The chapter already gives you a detailed account of the Nationalist Movement in Vietnam. You can also refer to some additional material on America’s war on Vietnam. Try looking for this material in your library. Try to understand and analyze the reasons that led to the war and the kind of impact it had on the people, i.e., people on both sides of the war.

This research will give you a better perspective to attempt the answers to such questions.

Page No 52:

Question 5:

What was the role of women in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam? Compare this with the role of women in the nationalist struggle in India.


Women played a crucial role in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam. Women who rebelled against social conventions were idealised and rebel women of the past were likewise celebrated. Trieu Au was a popular figure in nationalist tales. In the 1960s, women were represented as brave soldiers and workers. They assisted in nursing wounded soldiers, constructing underground tunnels and fighting the enemy. Interestingly, between 1965 and 1975, 70-80% of the youth working on the Ho Chi Minh trail were women.

Compared to this very direct and active participation of Vietnamese women in the anti-imperial struggle, India women did not play a very dynamic role in the nationalist struggle of India against Great Britain. They followed Gandhian ideals of boycotting foreign goods and picketing liquor shops, but mainstream politics was controlled by men; although women like Sarojini Naidu, Kamla Nehru and Kasturba Gandhi were keenly involved.

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