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Page No 84:

Question 1:

Read and discuss the following description of the living conditions of workers who come to the labour chowk.

Most workers that we find at the labour chowk cannot afford permanent accommodation and so sleep on pavements near the chowk, or they pay Rs 6 a night for a bed at a nearby shelter run by the Municipal Corporation. To compensate for the lack of security, local tea and cigarette shops function as banks, moneylenders and safety lockers, all rolled into one. Most workers leave their tools at these shops for the night for safekeeping, and pass on extra money to them. The shopkeepers keep the money safely and also offer loans to labourers in need.

Source: Aman Sethi, Hindu On-line

Answer:

The living conditions of the labourers as presented in the given paragraph put forward a very bleak picture. Most of the labourers who come to the labour chowk do not have a permanent accommodation because their incomes do not allow them to afford one. Sleeping on pavements is a desperate measure though not a good and safe option. Since most of these workers would be daily wage earners, they cannot always afford spending Rs 6 per night for sleeping in the night shelter run by the government. Borrowing money from local cigarette and tea shops is not a good option as these would be charging exorbitant amount of interest for very small sums of money. One can sum up by saying that the given paragraph is successful in showing us the adverse conditions that these labourers survive in order to live their lives one day at a time.

Hence, it is imperative that the government took significant measures to provide these people with proper accommodation and living conditions.



Page No 85:

Question 2:

Complete the following table and discuss how their work is different.

Name

Place of work

Earnings

Security of work

Benefits received

Work on their own or employed

Bachchu Manjhi

-

Rs 100 a day

-

-

Harpreet, Vandana

-

-

-

-

Work on their own

Nirmala

-

-

No security

-

-

Sudha

Company

Rs 30,000 p.m.

-

-

-

Answer:

Name

Place of work

Earnings

Security of work

Benefits received

Work on their own or employed

Bachchu Manjhi

Bus stop

Rs 100 a day

No security

None

Works on his own

Harpreet, Vandana

Readymade garments showroom

2-3 lakhs p.m.

Have licence to do business

Profits

Work on their own

Nirmala

Garment factory

Rs 80 a day +

Rs 40 extra for working late

No security

None

Employed

Sudha

Company

Rs 30,000 p.m.

Job security

Savings for old age,

Paid holidays,

Medical facilities

Employed



Page No 85:

Question 3:

In what ways is a permanent and regular job different from a casual job? Discuss.

Answer:

The following table lists the differences between a permanent/regular job and a casual job.

Permanent/Regular Job

Casual Job

Job security

No job security

Fixed working hours

Working hours unfixed

Regular monthly salary

Irregular wages

Form a part of the organised labour

Form a part of the unorganised labour

Benefits

No benefits



Page No 85:

Question 4:

What benefits does Sudha get along with her salary?

Answer:

Apart from a regular salary every month, Sudha gets the following benefits.

(i) Savings for old age: A part of her salary is kept in a government fund on which she earns regular interest. She can utilise this money when she retires.

(ii) Paid holidays: She gets leave on Sundays and national holidays. She also gets some days as annual leave. She gets medical leave if she falls ill.

(iii) Medical facilities: Her company pays the medical expenses up to a certain amount for her and her family members.



Page No 85:

Question 5:

Fill in the following table to show the services provided by people in the markets which you visit frequently.

Name of the shop or office

Nature of the service provided

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Answer:

Name of the shop or office

Nature of the service provided

Khanna Stores

Selling groceries

Dwinkle Opticals

Making and repairing spectacles

Roxy Dry Cleaners

Dry cleaning

Bindra Cables

Cable operator

Bangla Sweet House

Bakery



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