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Ranak Narwan & 3 others asked a question
Subject: English, asked on on 3/2/18
1. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (12)
One of the greatest advances in modern technology has been the invention of computers. They are widely used in Industries and in Universities. Now there is hardly any sphere of human life where computers have not been pressed in to service of man. We are heading fast on the close of this present century towards a situation when a computer will be as much part of man’s daily life as a telephone or a calculator.
Computers are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning. They can solve the most complex mathematical problems or put thousands of unrelated facts in order. These machines can be put to varied uses. For instance, they can provide information on the best way to prevent traffic, or they can count the number of times the word “and” has been used in the Bible. Because they work accurately and at high speed, they save the research workers hard work. This whole process by which machines can be used to work for us had been called ‘automation’. In the future ‘automation’ may enable human beings for more leisure than they do today. The coming of automation is bound to have important social consequences.
Some years ago an expert on automation, Sir Leon Bagrit, pointed out that it was a mistake to believe that these machines could ‘think’. There is no possibility that human beings will be “controlled by machines”. Though computers are capable of learning from their mistakes and improving on their performance, they need detailed instructions from human beings to operate. They can never, as it were, lead independent lives or “rule the world” by making decision of their own.
Sir Leon said that in future, computers would be developed which would be small enough to carry in the pocket. Ordinary people would then be able to use them to obtain valuable information. Computers could be plugged into a national network and be used like radios. For instance, people going on holiday could be informed about weather conditions. Car drivers can be given alternative routes when there are traffic jams. It will also be possible to make tiny translating machines. This will enable people who do not share a common language to talk to each other without any difficulty or to read foreign publication. It is impossible to assess that importance of a machine of this short, for many international misunderstandings are caused simply through our failure to understand each other. Computers will also be used in ordinary public hospital, by providing a machine with a patient’s systems; a doctor will be able to diagnosis the nature of illness. Similarly machines could be used to keep a check on a patient’s health record and bring it up to date. Doctors will there for have immediate access to a great many facts which will help in their work. Bookkeepers and accountants too could be relieved of dull clerical work, for the tedious task of compiling and checking lists of figures could be done entirely by machines. Computers will also be able to tell the exact age a man is going to live, with the help of his blood picture. Computers are the most efficient servants man has ever had and there is no limit to the way they can be used to improve our life style and life.
Q.1 What is the greatest advancement in modern technology? (2)
Q.2 Explain Automation? (2)
Q.3 What was the prediction of Sir Leon about the computers in future? (2)
Q.4 Name the areas where computers can be effectively used? (2)
Q.5 Give a suitable title to the passage. (1)
Q.6 Find word in above passage which convey the similar meaning for (3)
i) Difficult or complex
ii) Collect or arrange
iii) Another choice
Avijit asked a question
Subject: English, asked on on 30/9/15
Shankar S asked a question
Subject: English, asked on on 9/2/15
Mahesh Kumbar & 9 others asked a question
Subject: English, asked on on 24/2/18
2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: (8 marks)
Salt, a miraculous gift of nature, is one of the most useful and amazing minerals on Earth derived from the sea and rocks. Do you know that it is the only rock the humans can eat?
Used in all bakery products, prepared foods, sauces, soups, spices, cereals, dairy foods, meats, poultry. It is also an extraordinary effective food preservative, retarding the growth of spoilage by micro-organisms and making food storage possible long before refrigeration.
How much salt is necessary for human consumption? Medical experts agree that everyone should practice some reasonable ‘moderation’ in salt consumption. For the average person, a moderate amount might run from 4 to 10 gm a day, or roughly half to one and one-third teaspoons. The equivalent of one to two gm of this salt allowance would come from the natural sodium in food. The rest would be added in processing, preparation or at the table.
Common salt, a chloride of sodium, is chemically represented by the symbol NaCl. The human body has a continual need for salt. Sodium chloride or the common salt is 39 percent sodium and61 percent chloride. Forming a solution in the body, these two components separate into sodium and chloride ions, each with a different task. Chloride maintains the balance of water between the living cell and its environment, plays part indigestion, and pairs with sodium to maintain the blood’s acid-base balance, critical for life. Sodium assists in regulating the volume of blood and blood pressure. It facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses and is necessary for heart and muscle contractions. Although the popular conception is that salt is a flavor enhancer, a recent American study suggests that it functions as a flavor filter on food, selectively enhancing and suppressing various tastes. Other studies showed that the use of salt suppresses the bitter taste of dark green vegetables like bitter gourds.
Salt’s functions in the body are already elucidated. Deficiency signs include lethargy, dizziness, cramps and palpitation.
But what the good salt can do, in the right dose, is unequalled. Snorers should try spraying their nose with a salt water to moisten mucous membrane and make it easier to breathe. To invigorate the body when tired or to remove dead skin cells, rub a handful of salt all over your body before having a bath. Salt baths encourage detoxification and greatly help muscle and joint pains. Add a pound of salt to a comfortably hot bath and lie in it for 20 minutes, add hot water as it cools. Wrap up in cotton towels and get into a warm bed. You should perspire freely, sleep well and feel much better in the morning. Remove all the congestion in your throat by saline gargles.
The recommendation that no one should exclude salt totally from the diet is awfully wrong. Scientists are of the view that salt is an invisible killer and, therefore, a health hazard. As new evidence piles up; alarm bells have started ringing. And the next battle might just be against salt!
Specialists are convinced that a diet high in salt causes high blood pressure, a disorder that afflicts one-third of people above the age of 60. Moreover, this is a risk factor for two big killers—coronary heart disease and stroke.
a) On the basis of your reading of the passage carefully, make notes on it, in points only using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it. (5)
b) Make a summary of the above passage in about 80 words. (3)
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