NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Humanities History Chapter 1 Theme 1: From The Beginning Of Time are provided here with simple step-by-step explanations. These solutions for Theme 1: From The Beginning Of Time are extremely popular among class 11 Humanities students for History Theme 1: From The Beginning Of Time Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams. All questions and answers from the NCERT Book of class 11 Humanities History Chapter 1 are provided here for you for free. You will also love the ad-free experience on Meritnation’s NCERT Solutions. All NCERT Solutions for class 11 Humanities History are prepared by experts and are 100% accurate.
Page No 28:
Look at the diagram showing the positive feedback mechanism on page13. Can you list the inputs that went into tool making? What were the processes that were strengthened by tool making?
To answer this question, let us first have a look at the diagram below.
In the diagram, we have lines of two colours. The red-coloured lines indicate the ‘inputs’, whereas the blue-coloured lines indicate ‘processes’ that were, in turn, strengthened by tool making.Considering the red-coloured lines, we have enlisted (below) the inputs that facilitated the tool making process.
1. Increase in the size and capacity of brain: Overtime, the continuous evolution of human beings has witnessed the increase in brain size along with its increased thinking capacity. This directly led to the development of the basic intelligence, which in turn boosted the problem-solving skills of the early man. With better intelligence, he could now design newer weapons and tools for self-defence, killing animals and gathering food for his subsistence.
2. Upright walking: Once the early man started walking upright, his front limbs got free. This helped him utilise those extra limbs for making tools and using them.
3. Visual surveillance: With the development of the skills of visual surveillance (or simply observation powers), the early man could now understand and keep a track of the events happening around him and, accordingly, could prepare himself by making proper tools that could withstand similar events.
4. Hands freed for using tools and carrying infants and objects: As the early man started walking upright, his forelimbs got free. He started using his hands to carry his infants and objects such as tools, utensils, etc. In addition, it also led him to use his tools with more pressure and force.Now, let us consider the blue-coloured lines.
The processes that were strengthened by tool making are mentioned below.
1. Increase in size and capacity of brain: The tool making process, in turn, enhanced the technical know-how of the early man. This also infused the power to think, concentrate, understand and memorise. All these developments further increased the capacity of early man’s brain.
2. Upright walking: It enabled the early man to use hands for making, carrying and using tools. This further added to his potential and got him extra hands to do a lot more things than he did previously.
3. Visual surveillance: With more analytical and observatory powers, the early man developed enhanced tools and weapons. Simultaneously, he could now undertake the journey to exploit the unexplored tracks for food.
Page No 28:
Humans and mammals such as monkeys and apes have certain similarities in behaviour and anatomy. This indicates that humans possibly evolved from apes. List these resemblances in two columns under the headings of (a) behaviour and (b) anatomy. Are there any differences that you think are noteworthy?
The similarities between humans and mammals in terms of behaviour and anatomy have been tabulated below.
Basis of Similarities between humans and other mammals
|Basis of Similarities between humans and other mammals||Similarities|
|a) Behaviour||i. Living in groups: Both primates and humans live in groups. While primates live in groups especially for the survival needs, humans, on the other hand, live in groups for reasons such as nationality and also due to cultural factors.
ii. Communication: Both primates and humans have the ability to communicate. On one hand, primates use sounds and gestures as modes of communication, humans, on the other hand, use advanced communication mediums such as writing and talking besides gestures.
|b) Anatomy||i. Prehensile hands and feet: This is common between primates and humans. This enables both to have a strong grip.
ii. Flattened face: Both of them have flattened face, with two eyes next to each other. This allows them to have a vision that further helped to have a wider and complete view of the surroundings.
Besides the aforementioned similarities, both humans and primates have considerable differences in their behaviour and anatomy.
|Points of difference||Mammals or Primates||Humans|
|Behaviour||i. Communication based on limited sound and gestures only
ii. Social groups are based on their survival needs
|i. Use advanced communication skills to interact among each other
ii. Social groups are based on nationality, culture and other important factors besides survival needs
|Anatomy||i. Face is larger than cranium
ii. Facial structure
a. Flattened nose
b. Very large jaws (for eating)
c. Thin lips
|i. Face is smaller than cranium
ii. Facial structure
a. Protruding nose
b. Flattened jaws
c. Large lips (beneficial for facial expressions)
Page No 28:
Discuss the arguments advanced in favour of the regional continuity model of human origins. Do you think it provides a convincing explanation of the archaeological evidence? Give reasons for your answer.
The regional continuity model states that the hominid ancestors had migrated from Africa and their further evolution took place in separate geographical regions. The remains of the mixed modern and archaic skull types found across the globe suggest that evolution of mankind took place simultaneously in different parts of the world; probably by the process of ‘genes flowing between populations.’
However, I do not believe that the evidence of the regional continuity model justifies the origin of humans. The replacement theory and its available evidences would be the best to justify it. According to this theory, Homo sapiens originated in Africa. Between 100,000–120,000 years ago, they migrated to Europe, Asia and Australia. This period was marked by the extinction of the earlier hominid species and the sustenance of Homo sapiens. Gradually and eventually, the Homo sapiens had spread across different parts of the world. This is regarded as the reason behind the degree of similarity among all modern humans (since they all have a common place of origin) by the replacement theorists. The fact that the oldest human fossil has also been excavated from Africa further reinforces my belief on the replacement theory.
Page No 28:
Which of the following do you think is best documented in the archaeological record: (a) gathering, (b) tool making, (c) the use of fire?
The technique of tool making is best documented in the archaeological records. The earliest evidence of making and using stone tools comes from the archaeological sites in Ethiopia and Kenya. The remains of various types of tools found after excavations prove that man had mastered the skill of tool making. Moreover, according to the need of the time, the shape and size of the tools were also changed.
Page No 28:
Discuss the extent to which (a) hunting and (b) constructing shelters would have been facilitated by the use of language. What other modes of communication could have been used for these activities?
With the passage of time, the capacity of human brain developed, which gradually led to the communication among early humans. Initially, the communication remained highly restricted to the non-verbal modes involving gestures. However, with the passage of time, the evolution of the voice box took place and the communication methods became more advanced. Simple gestures were now replaced by whistling, talking and singing (together they can be regarded as language used by the early man). This further simplified communication; the ideas and thoughts could be easily expressed. All this highly facilitated the early man in the efficient conduct of daily errands involving hunting and constructing shelters.
The extent to which hunting and constructing shelters have been facilitated by the use of language has been explained below.
ii. Planning and executing hunting strategies became easier
iii. Sharing of experiences led to easy diffusion of the tool-making technical know-how and successful hunting techniques. These shared stories of success, in turn, infused early man with the confidence to hunt more efficiently
iv. The use of language enabled early humans to caution their associates of any approaching danger. Thus, they acted as support for each other in times of any exigency.
b) Constructing shelters
Besides facilitating hunting, the evolution of language also enabled early man in constructing shelters. He could now discuss the choice of the site for building shelters along with his construction plans. Coordination in the process of construction of shelters was also possible by communication.
Other than the use of language, work of art such as paintings and engravings also served as means of communication. Paintings were made to share the news of successful hunting expeditions, techniques and tools so used. The presence of such paintings on the cave walls argues that the early humans used to gathered together to share their experiences and socialise.
Page No 28:
Choose any two developments each from Timelines 1 and 2 at the end of the chapter and indicate why you think these are significant.
According to me, the two most significant developments from timelines 1 and 2 are as follows:
1. Earliest stone tools: The making of the earliest stone tools is significant as it marked the initial phase of technological innovation. As the early man started making tools, executing daily tasks such as hunting and construction got easier. Simultaneously, he started crafting tools to suit farming needs. Farming provided a comparatively secure and stable source of food. This allowed early man to give up his nomadic life and settle down at one place. It can thus be rightly stated that the making of earliest tools marked the beginning of the initial phase of human civilisations.
2. Development of the voice box: The development of the voice box in early humans around 200000 years ago helped man to start speaking or communicating. Gestures, as mode of communication, were replaced by speech. Expression and communication of ideas and emotions became less cumbersome. The power to speak also helped the early man to conduct hunting and constructing shelters in the following manner:
ii. Planning and executing hunting strategies became easier.
iii. Sharing of experiences led to easy diffusing of the tool making technical know-how and successful hunting techniques. These shared stories of success, in turn, infused early man with confidence to hunt more efficiently.
iv. The use of language enabled early man to caution his associates of any approaching danger. Thus, they acted as support for each other in times of any exigency.
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