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Kinetic Theory

Molecular nature of matter

  • Atomic hypothesis: All things are made of atoms − little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are at a little distance apart and repelling when squeezed into one another.

  • Atomic theory: Proposed by John Dalton to explain the laws of definite and multiple proportions.

  • First law states that any given compound has fixed proportion by mass of its constituents.

  • Second law states that when two elements form more than one compound, for a fixed mass of one element, the masses of the other elements are in the ratio of small integers.

  • Gay-Lussac’s law: When gases combine chemically to yield another gas, their volumes are in the ratio of small integers.

  • Avogadro’s law: Equal volumes of all gases at equal temperature and pressure have the same number of molecules.

  • Dalton’s atomic theory is referred to as the molecular theory of matter.

  • Atoms in gases are freer than those in liquid and solids.

  • Atoms are not elementary; they can be further sub divided into their constituents.

The chain of sub division does not end here.

  • Gases at lo…

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