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Thermodynamics

Thermal equilibrium and Zeroth law of Thermodynamics

  • Thermodynamics deals with heat and temperature, and the inter-conversion of heat and other energy forms.

  • Thermodynamics is a macroscopic science. It deals with bulk system, and does not go into the molecular constitution of matter.

  • Thermal equilibrium: State of a system is an equilibrium state if the macroscopic variables that characterise the system do not change. Two systems at the same temperature are said to be in thermal equilibrium with each other.

  • Adiabatic wall: It is an insulating wall that does not allow flow of heat

  • Diathermic wall: It is a conducting wall that allows flow of heat. In this case, thermal equilibrium can be attained.

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

  • When two systems are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

  • The physical quantity which is required to be in thermal equilibrium is temperature

  • Consider three systems, X, Y and Z.

X and Y are separately in thermal equilibrium with Z.

Where,

TX = Temperature of X

TY = Temperature of Y

TZ = Temperature of Z

Hence,

The systems X and Y are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

  • Thermodynamics deals with heat and temperature, and the inter-conversion of heat and other energy forms.

  • Thermodynamics is a macroscopic science. It deals with bulk system, and does not go into the molecular constitution of matter.

  • Thermal equilibrium: State of a system is an equilibrium state if the macroscopic variables that characterise the system do not change. Two systems at the same temperature are said to be in thermal equilibrium with each other.

  • Adiabatic wall: It is an insulating wall that does not allow flow of heat

  • Diathermic wall: It is a conducting wall that allows flow of heat. In this case, thermal equilibrium can be attained.

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

  • When two systems are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

  • The physical quantity which is required to be in thermal equilibrium is temperature

  • Consider three systems, X, Y and Z.

X and Y are separately in thermal equilibrium with Z.

Where,

TX = Temperature of X

TY = Temperature of Y

TZ = Temper…

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