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Page No 142:

Question 1:

What is meant by a Debenture?

Answer:

The word Debenture is derived from a Latin word ‘debere’ which means to borrow. A debenture is issued in the form of a certificate under the seal of a company and containing a contract for the repayment of the principal sum after a fixed period of time and payment of interest at regular intervals, generally half yearly. Debentures are issued by a company for acquiring long-term borrowings.

Page No 142:

Question 2:

What does a Bearer Debenture mean?

Answer:

When a company does not maintain any record of the debenture holders and the debenture is transferable mere by delivery, then the type of the debenture held by the holders is termed as Bearer Debenture. Interests on such debentures are paid to the persons who produce the interest coupons that are attached with these debentures in a specified bank.

Page No 142:

Question 3:

State the meaning of ‘Debentures issued as a Collateral Security’.

Answer:

The term collateral security means additional or secondary security in addition to the primary security. Sometimes, when a company takes loan from a financial institution, then besides the primary security, the company may issue debenture for additional security (as collateral security). The lender who receives debenture as collateral security is not entitled for interest on these debentures. If any default is made by the company in paying back the principal amount (i.e. the loan amount) or interest on the loan, then the lender has the full right to recover his/her dues from the sale of primary security. But, if the primary security is not sufficient to recover the amount of the debt, then the debentures issued as collateral may be used for recovery of the remaining amount.

Page No 142:

Question 4:

What is meant by ‘Issue of debentures for Consideration other than Cash’?

Answer:

If a company purchases assets from its suppliers or vendors, then instead of paying them in cash the company issues debentures to them. This is known as issue of debenture for consideration other than cash. The issue of debenture for consideration other than cash serves the purpose of both the vendor as well as of the purchaser (company). From the purchaser’s point of view, purchasing an asset against the issue of debentures requires no additional cost for raising loans or arranging funds immediately. On the other hand, the vendor gets interest on the amount of debentures received. In this case, payment is deferred by issue of debentures and interest is paid for time lag payment.  Debentures may be issued at par, premium or discount to the vendor.

 

Accounting treatment for Issue of Debentures for Consideration other than Cash

 

1. For purchase of Assets:

Assets A/c

Dr.

 

To Vendor A/c

 

(Asset Purchased)

 

     

 

2. For Issue of Debentures

a. If debentures are issued at Par:

Vendor A/c

Dr.

 

To Debentures A/c

 

(Debenture issued to Vendor at par )

 

     

 

b. If debentures are issued at Premium

Vendor A/c

Dr.

 

To Debentures A/c

To Securities Premium A/c

 

(Debenture issued to Vendor at premium)

 

     

 

c) If debentures are issued at Discount

Vendor A/c

Dr.

Discount on Issue of Debentures

Dr.

 

To Debentures A/c

 

(Debenture issued to Vendor at discount )

 

     

 

 

Page No 142:

Question 5:

What is meant by ‘Issue of debenture at discount and redeemable at premium?

Answer:

When debentures are issued below its par value (or the face value) but are redeemed at price higher than its par value, then it is termed as issue of debenture at discount and redeemable at premium. The difference between the issue price and the redemption price is treated as loss on issue of debenture.

 

Example:

A 10% debenture of Rs 1,000 is issued at 5% discount and is redeemed at 10% premium.

Bank A/c

Dr.

950

 

Discount on Issue of Debenture A/c

Dr.

50

 

Loss on Issue of Debenture A/c

Dr.

100

 

 

To Debenture A/c

 

 

1,000

 

To Debenture Redemption Premium A/c

 

 

100

(Debenture issued)

 

 

 

 

Total loss = Payment made at redemption – Amount received on issue of debenture

1,100 – 950 = Rs 150

 

Page No 142:

Question 6:

What is ‘Capital Reserve’?

Answer:

Capital Reserve is a reserve that is created out of capital profits i.e. gains or profits arising from other than the normal activities of business operations i.e. activities other than sale or purchase of goods and services. This reserve is utilised to meet future capital losses, if any, and to issue bonus shares. It cannot be distributed as dividend among the share holders. The Capital Reserve is generated out of the following activities:

i. Premium on issue of shares.

ii. Premium on issue of debentures.

iii. Profit on redemption of debentures.

iv. Profit on sale of fixed assets.

v. Profit on reissue of forfeited shares.

vi. Profit prior to incorporation, etc.

Page No 142:

Question 7:

What is meant by an ‘Irredeemable Debenture’?

Answer:

Irredeemable Debentures are those debentures that are not repayable or redeemable by a company during its life time. These are repayable only at the time of winding up of the company. These are also known as Perpetual Debentures that means debentures having indefinite life. In India, now days, no company can issue irredeemable debentures.

Page No 142:

Question 8:

What is a ‘Convertible Debenture’?

Answer:

Convertible Debentures are those debentures that can be converted into equity shares after a specified period of time. These are of following two types:

i. Fully Convertible Debentures: When the whole amount of a debenture is convertible into equity shares worth of equivalent amount, then these debentures are called Fully Convertible Debentures. There is no need to maintain Debenture Redemption Reserves for such debentures.

ii. Partly Convertible Debentures: When only a part of the amount of a debenture is convertible into equity share, then these debentures are called Partly Convertible Debentures. In this regards, the Debenture Redemption Reserve is maintained only for the non-convertible part of the debenture.

Page No 142:

Question 9:

What is meant by ‘Mortgaged Debentures’?

Answer:

Mortgaged Debentures are those debentures that are secured against asset/s of a company. These are also known as secured debentures. If the debentures are secured against a particular asset, then it is called fixed charge whereas, if the debentures are secured against all the assets of a company, then it is called floating charge. In case the company fails to pay back the principal amount of debenture or fails to meet its interest obligations on the due date, then the debenture holders have the right to sell the mortgage asset in order to realise their amount due to the company.

Page No 142:

Question 10:

What is discount on issue of debentures?

Answer:

When the debentures are issued at a price below its par value or face value, then it is said that the debentures are issued at discount. The difference between the issue price and the face value of the debenture is regarded as a capital loss.
As per the Revised Schedule VI of the Companies Act, Discount on Issue of Debentures is shown in the Notes to Accounts:

1. With the amount that is to be written off within 12 months from the date of Balance Sheet - Shown under Other Current Assets

2. With the amount that is to be written off after 12 months from the date of Balance Sheet - Shown under Other Non-Current Assets

Page No 142:

Question 11:

What is meant by ‘Premium on Redemption of Debentures’?

Answer:

When the debentures are redeemed at a price more than its face value or the par value, then it is said that the debentures are redeemed at premium. The difference between the redeemed price and the par value is regarded as a capital loss and this loss is written off till the redemption of the debentures. The Premium on Redemption of Debenture is shown in the Notes to Accounts under the sub-head of 'Other Long-term Liabilities'. The final balance is shown under the main head of 'Non-Current Liabilities' on the Equity and Liabilities side of the Company's Balance Sheet.

Accounting Treatment for Premium on Redemption on Debentures:

1. At the time of the Issue of Debenture:

Bank/Debenture Allotment A/c

Dr.

Loss on Issue of Debenture A/c

Dr.

 

To Debenture A/c

 

 

To Premium on Redemption

 

(Debenture issued with the term of redemption at premium)

 

2. At the time of Redemption of Debentures:

Debenture A/c

Dr.

Premium on Redemption A/c

Dr.

 

To Debentureholder A/c

 

(Amount of debentures due to debentureholders)

 

     

 

Page No 142:

Question 12:

How are debentures different from shares? Give two points.

Answer:

 

Basis of Comparisons

Debentures

Shares

1. Meaning

Debentures are a part of loan, therefore, the debenture holders are the creditors of a company.

Shares form a part of capital, hence, share holders are the owner of a company.

2. Voting Rights

These do not carry any voting rights for their holders.

These carry voting rights for their holders.

 

 

Page No 142:

Question 13:

Name the head under which ‘discount on issue of debentures’ appears in the Balance Sheet of a company.

Answer:

Discount on Issue of Debentures is regarded as a capital loss. As per the Revised Schedule VI of the Companies Act, Discount on Issue of Debentures is shown in the Notes to Accounts:

1. With the amount that is to be written off within 12 months from the date of Balance Sheet - Shown under Other Current Assets

2. With the amount that is to be written off after 12 months from the date of Balance Sheet - Shown under Other Non-Current Assets



Page No 143:

Question 14:

What is meant by redemption of debentures?

Answer:

Redemption of debenture means repayment of debentures by the company to the debenture holders. In other words, it implies the discharge of liabilities by repaying the amount due to the debenture holders as per the terms and conditions determined at the time of issue of debentures. Debentures may be redeemable at par, premium or discount, but, nowa days, these are mostly redeemable at par or premium. The redemption can be done out of profits or from the fresh issue of debentures or shares. Redemption of debentures may be done by the following methods:

1. In lump sum at the time of maturity,

2. In instalments by draw of lots at the end of each year,

3. By purchase in open market whenever price is below its face value,

4. By converting debentures into shares or new debentures.

Page No 143:

Question 15:

Can the company purchase its own debentures?

Answer:

Yes, a company can purchase its own debentures provided it is authorised by its Article of Association. As per the Company Act, if a company is authorised by its Article of Association, only then it may purchase its own debentures from the open market. The main purposes of such purchase are as follows:

1. For immediate cancellation of debenture liability, if the interest rate on its debenture is higher than the market rate of interest.

2. A company may also purchase its own debentures with the motive of investment and sell them at higher price in future and thereby earn profit.

Page No 143:

Question 16:

What is meant by redemption of debentures by conversion?

Answer:

When a debenture holder can convert his/her debentures into shares or new debentures after the expiry of a specified period of time, then it is known as redemption of debentures by conversion. As the company do not need to pay any funds for the redemption, so there is no need to maintain the Debenture Redemption Reserve (DRR). The new shares or debentures may be issued at par, premium or at discount.

Page No 143:

Question 17:

How would you deal with ‘Premium on Redemption of Debentures’?

Answer:

When the debentures are redeemed at a price more than its face value or the par value, then it is said that the debentures are redeemed at premium. The difference between the redeemed price and the par value is regarded as a capital loss and this loss is written off till the redemption of the debentures. The Premium on Redemption of Debenture is shown in the Notes to Accounts under the sub-head of 'Other Long-term Liabilities'. The final balance is shown under the main head of 'Non-Current Liabilities' on the Equity and Liabilities side of the Company's Balance Sheet.

Accounting Treatment for Premium on Redemption on Debentures:

1. At the time of the Issue of Debenture:

Bank/Debenture Allotment A/c

Dr.

Loss on issue of Debenture A/c

Dr.

 

To Debenture A/c

 

 

To Premium on Redemption

 

(Debenture issued with the term of redemption at

premium)

 

2. At the time of Redemption of Debentures:

Debenture A/c

Dr.

Premium on Redemption A/c

Dr.

 

To Debenture Holder A/c

 

(Amount of debentures due to debenture holders)

 

     

 

 

Page No 143:

Question 18:

What is meant by ‘Redemption out of Capital?

Answer:

When debentures are redeemed out of capital and no profits are utilised for redemption, then such redemption is termed as redemption out of capital. In such a situation, no profits are transferred to the Debenture Redemption Reserve.

As per the guideline laid down by Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) and the Section 117C of Company Act of 1956, the creation of Debenture Redemption Reserve is mandatory (DRR). Therefore, it is not possible to redeem debentures purely out of capital, as it reduces the value of assets. The following companies are exempted from the creation of DRR.

 

1. Infrastructure companies (i.e. those companies that are engaged in the business of developing, maintaining and operating infrastructure facilities)

2. A Company that issues debentures with a maturity up to 18 months

 

The following are the necessary Journal entries that need to be passed, in case the debentures are redeemed out of capital.

a. If  debentures are redeemed out of capital at Par

Debenture A/c

Dr.

 

To Debenture holder A/c

 

(Amount of debentures due to debenture holders)

 

     

 

Debenture holder A/c

Dr.

 

To Bank A/c

 

(Amount of debentures paid to debenture holders)

 

     

 

b. If  debentures are redeemed out of capital at Premium

 

Debenture A/c

Dr.

Premium on Redemption A/c

Dr.

 

To Debenture holder A/c

 

(Amount of debentures due to debenture holders)

 

     

 

Debenture holder A/c

Dr.

 

To Bank A/c

 

(Amount of debentures paid to debenture holders)

 

     

 

 

Page No 143:

Question 19:

What is meant by redemption of debentures by ‘Purchase in the Open Market’?

Answer:

According to the Company Act, if a company is authorised by its Article of Association, only then it may purchase its own debentures from the open market. The main purpose of such purchase is as follows:

1. For immediate cancellation of debenture liability, if the interest rate on its debenture is higher than the market rate of interest.

2. A company may also purchase its own debentures with the motive of investment and sell them at higher price in future and thereby earn profit.

Page No 143:

Question 20:

Under which head is the ‘Debenture Redemption Reserve’ shown in the Balance Sheet?

Answer:

As per the Revised  Schedule VI, Debenture Redemption Reserve (DRR) is shown in the Notes to Accounts of Reserve and Surplus. The final balance after adding DRR, is shown as the sub-head 'Reserves and Surplus' under the main head of Shareholders' Funds on the Equity and Liabilities side of the Company's Balance Sheet. 

Page No 143:

Question 1:

Explain the different types of debentures?

Answer:

Debentures are issued by a company for acquiring long-term borrowings.

They can be classified on the following basis.

1. On the basis of Security

a. Secured Debentures- Mortgaged Debentures are those debentures that are secured against asset/s of a company. These are also known as secured debentures. In case the company fails to pay back the principal amount of debenture or fails to meet its interest obligations on the due date, then the debenture holders have the right to sell the mortgaged asset in order to realise their amount due to the company.

b. Unsecured Debentures- These debentures are treated as unsecured creditors. They do not have any security. These are uncommon now days.

2. On the basis of Tenure

a. Redeemable Debenture- These debentures are payable after the expiry of a specific period. These debentures can be redeemed at par or premium either in lump sum or in installment. Generally all debentures are redeemable.

b. Irredeemable Debenture- Irredeemable Debentures are those debentures that cannot be repayable or redeemable by a company during its life time. These are repayable only at the time of winding up of the company. These are also known as Perpetual Debentures that means debentures having indefinite life. In India, now days, no company can issue irredeemable debentures.

3. On the basis of Mode of Redemption

a. Convertible Debentures- Convertible Debentures are those debentures that can be converted into equity shares after a specified period of time. These are of following two types:

i. Fully Convertible Debentures: When the whole amount of a debenture is  convertible into equity shares of equivalent amount, then these debentures are called Fully Convertible Debentures. There is no need to maintain Debenture Redemption Reserves for such debentures.

ii. Partly Convertible Debentures: When only a part of the amount of a debenture is  convertible into equity shares, then these debentures are called Partly Convertible Debentures. In this regards, the Debenture Redemption Reserve is maintained only for the non-convertible part of the debenture.

b. Non-Convertible Debenture- These debentures cannot be converted into shares. Generally debentures are non convertible.

4. On the basis of Coupon Rate

a. Zero Coupon Rate- These debentures do not contain a specific rate of interest and can be issued at discount. The excess of the face value of the debenture over its issue price is considered as interest amount.

b. Specific Rate- These debentures carry a specific rate of interest which may be fixed or floating.

5. On the basis of Registration

a. Registered Debenture- While issuing such debentures, the company maintains a record regarding name, address and number of holding of debentures in the Register of Debenture Holders of the company.

b. Bearer Debentures- When a company does not maintain any record of the debenture holders and the debenture is transferable mere by delivery, then the type of the debenture held by the holders is termed as Bearer Debenture. Interests on such debentures are paid to the persons who produce the interest coupons that are attached with these debentures in a specified bank.

Page No 143:

Question 2:

Distinguish between a debenture and a share. Why is debenture known as loan capital? Explain.

Answer:

 

Basis of Difference

Shares

Debenture

1. Owner or Creditor

Share holders are the owners since shares forms a are part of owned capital

Debenture holder are Creditors since debentures are a part of loan

2. Voting Rights

Share holders have the voting rights

Debenture holders do not have any voting rights.

3. Returns

Share holders are entitled for returns in  the form of dividend.

Debenture holders are entitled for returns in the form of interest.

4. Rate of Return

The rate of dividend is not fixed and varies from year to year.

The rate of interest is fixed and do not vary from year to year.

5. Obligations of Return

Dividend is appropriation of profit. Dividend will not be paid if losses are incurred by the company

Interest is charged against profit, interest is payable even if there is no profit.

 

6. Repayment of Amount

The amount of share is not returned during the life time of the company

The amount of debenture is returned according to the term of issue.

7. Issue

The issue of shares at discount need adherence to the restrictions imposed by the Section 79 of the Company Act.

There are no such restrictions for issuing debentures on discount.

8. Conversion

Shares cannot be converted into debentures.

Debentures can be converted into shares.

9. Risk

Shares are more risky than debenture as these are unsecured.

If debentures are secured against asset, the risk involved is the minimal.

10. Repayment Priority

Payment to the share holders is made after settlement of all external liabilities, i.e. after debenture holders.

Payment to the debenture holders is made before the share holders.

 

Issue of debentures implies incurring long-term indebtedness. Generally, a company issues debentures for acquiring long-term borrowings to achieve its long-run targets and growth. Like the owner’s capital, interest is also payable on the principal amount of the debenture. The interest paid is regarded as an expense for the company and is deductible under Income Tax Act. Therefore, debentures are also known as loan capital because they are redeemable after a long period of time.

 

Page No 143:

Question 3:

Describe the meaning of ‘Debenture Issued as Collateral Securities’. What accounting treatment is given to the issue of debentures in the books of accounts?

Answer:

The term collateral security means additional or secondary security in addition to the primary security. Sometimes, when a company takes loan from a financial institution, then besides the primary security, the company may issue debenture for additional security (as collateral security). The lender who receives debenture as collateral security is not entitled for interest on these debentures. If any default is made by the company in paying back the principal amount (i.e. the loan amount) or interest on the loan, then the lender has the full right to recover his/her dues from the sale of primary security. But, if the primary security is not sufficient to recover the amount of debt, then the debentures issued as collateral may be used for recovery of the remaining amount.

Accounting Treatment

There are  two ways to record issue of debentures as collateral security:

1. No Entry

As no liability has been created so no Journal entry is recorded in the books of account. As per the Revised Schedule-VI of the Companies Act, the issue of debenture as collateral security is shown as a Long-Term Borrowings under the heading of Non-Current Liabilities on the Equity and Liabilities side of the Balance Sheet. In the Notes to Accounts of Long-Term Borrowings, the Loan so taken is shown. And in the Notes to Accounts of Cash and Cash Equivalents, the amount of loan so received (in cash) is shown. This can be better understood with the help of the below explained example.

Example- Suppose Best Bus Ltd. issued 4,000 9% Debentures of Rs 100 each as collateral security to NBP bank for a loan of Rs 3,00,000.

Best Bus Ltd.

Balance Sheet

Particulars

Note No.

Amount 

(Rs)

I. Equity and Liabilities

 

 

1. Shareholders’ Funds

 

 

2. Non-Current Liabilities

 

 

a. Long-Term Borrowings

1

3,00,000

3. Current Liabilities

 

 

Total

 

3,00,000

 

 

 

II. Assets

 

 

1. Non-Current Assets

 

 

2. Current Assets

 

 

a. Cash and Cash Equivalents

2

3,00,000

Total

 

3,00,000

 

 

 

NOTES TO ACCOUNTS

Note No.

Particulars

Amount   (Rs)

 

 

 

1

Long-Term Borrowings

 

 

Loan (Secured by issue of  9% Debentures of Rs 4,00,000 as Collateral Security)

 

3,00,000

 

 

 

2

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

 

Cash at Bank

3,00,000

 

 

 

2. By Making Entry

In order to record the issue of debentures as collateral security, the following necessary Journal entries are made in the books of account. 

At the time of Issue of Debentures as Collateral Security

Debenture Suspense A/c

Dr.

 

To Debenture A/c

 

(Debentures issued as collateral security)

 

     

In this case, as per the Revised Schedule VI of the Companies Act, Debentures so issued as collateral security will be shown as Long-Term Borrowings under the head of Non-Current Liabilities of the Equity and Liabilities side of the Company's Balance Sheet. Unlike Method-1, in this method, Debentures Suspense Account is deducted from the Debentures Account in the Notes to Accounts of Long-Term Borrowings. 

Best Bus Ltd.

Balance Sheet

Particulars

Note No.

Amount 

(Rs)

I. Equity and Liabilities

 

 

1. Shareholders’ Funds

 

 

2. Non-Current Liabilities

 

 

a. Long-Term Borrowings

1

3,00,000

3. Current Liabilities

 

 

Total

 

3,00,000

 

 

 

II. Assets

 

 

1. Non-Current Assets

 

 

2. Current Assets

 

 

a. Cash and Cash Equivalents

2

3,00,000

Total

 

3,00,000

 

 

 

NOTES TO ACCOUNTS

Note No.

Particulars

Amount  

(Rs)

 

 

 

1

Long-Term Borrowings

 

 

Secured:

 

 

Loan (Secured by issue of  9% Debentures of

Rs 4,00,000 as Collateral Security)

 

3,00,000

 

9% Debentures (Issued as Collateral Security to Bank against loan)

 

4,00,000

 

 

 

Less: Debenture Suspense Account

(4,00,000)

-

 

 

3,00,000

 

 

 

2

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

 

Cash at Bank

3,00,000

 

 

 

 

Page No 143:

Question 4:

How is ‘Discount on Issue of Debentures’ treated in the books of accounts? How will you deal with the ‘discount in issue of debentures’ when the debentures are to be redeemed in instalments?

Answer:

When the debentures are issued at a price below its par value or face value, then it is said that the debentures are issued at discount. The difference between the issue price and the face value of the debenture is regarded as a capital loss. As per the Revised Schedule VI of the Companies Act, Discount on Issue of Debentures is shown in the Notes to Accounts:

1. With the amount that is to be written off within 12 months from the date of Balance Sheet - Shown under Other Current Assets

2. With the amount that is to be written off after 12 months from the date of Balance Sheet - Shown under Other Non-Current Assets

Accounting Treatment
For example, if a company has issued 10% debentures of Rs 6,00,000 at 5% discount redeemable annually by Rs 2,00,000 each year. The total amount of discount on Rs 6,00,000 debentures @ 5% is Rs 30,000, i.e. (6,00,000 × 5/100 = Rs 30,000). The accounting treatment for discount on issue of debentures(if it is to be written-off in 5 years) is:

Year 1: Amount to be written-off each year = 30,000 × 15=6,000 - Shown in Statement of Profit and Loss
Amount to be written-off in the next year = 6,000 - Shown as Other Current Asset under Current Assets
Remaining Amount to be written-off after next year = 30,000 - 6,000 - 6,000= 18,000 - Shown as Other Non-Current Asset under Non-Current Assets
 
Statement of Profit and Loss
for year ended...
S. No. Particulars Note No. Amount
I Revenue from Operations    
II Other Income    
III Total Revenue (I + II)    
IV Expenses:    
  Amortisation Expenses (Discount on issue of debentures written-off)   6,000
 
Extract of Balance Sheet
as on March 31, 2013
Particulars Note No. Amount
(Rs)
     
II. Assets    
1. Non-Current Assets    
(e) Other Non-Current Assets
1 18,000
     
2. Current Assets    
(f) Other Current Assets
2 6,000
     
 
NOTES TO ACCOUNTS
Note No. Particulars Amount
(Rs)
     
1 Other Non-Current Assets  
  Discount of Issue of Debentures 18,000
     
2 Other Current Assets  
  Discount of Issue of Debentures 6,000

Year 2
Amount to be written-off = 30,000 × 15=6,000 - Shown in Statement of Profit and Loss
Amount to be written-off in the next year = 6,000 - Shown as Other Current Asset under Current Assets
Remaining Amount to be written-off after next year = 18,000 - 6,000 = 12,000 - Shown as Other Non-Current Asset under Non-Current Assets

At the end of Year 5, the amount of discount on issue of debentures will be completely written off.

Page No 143:

Question 5:

Explain the different terms for the issue of debentures with reference to their redemption.

Answer:

The different terms for the issue of debentures with reference to their redemption can be the combinations of at par, at premium and at discount. Normally, the debentures are not redeemable at discount. The permutation and the combination of the various terms of issue and redemption of debentures give rise to following six situations:

 

1. Issue at Par, Redeemable at Par.

2. Issue at Premium, Redeemable at Par.

3. Issue at Discount, Redeemable at Par.

4. Issue at Par, Redeemable at Premium.

5. Issue at Premium, Redeemable at Premium.

6. Issue at Discount Redeemable at Premium.

 

1. Issue at Par and Redeemable at Par- When the debentures are issued and are redeemed at their face value, then the following Journal entry is passed.

 

Bank A/c

Dr. (with the amount received)

 

To Debenture Application A/c

(with the face value)

(Debenture Application money received)

 

     

 

Debenture Application A/c

Dr.

 

To Debenture A/c

 

(Application money transferred to Debenture Account)

 

     

 

2. Issue at Premium and Redeemable at Par- When the debentures are issued at premium and are redeemable at par, then the following Journal entry is passed. As premium is a gain for a company so it is credited in the Journal entry.

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

To Debenture Application A/c

 

(Debenture Application money received)

 

     

 

Debenture Application A/c

Dr.

 

To Debenture A/c

 

 

To Securities Premium A/c

 

(Debentures issued at premium and redeemable at par)

 

 

3. Issue at Discount and Redeemable at Par- When the debentures are issued at discount and are redeemable at par, then the following Journal entry is passed. As discount is a loss for a company so it is debited in the Journal entry.

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

To Debenture Application A/c

 

(Debenture Application money received)

 

     

 

Debenture Application A/c

Dr.

Discount on Issue of Debenture A/c

Dr.

 

To Debenture A/c

 

(Debentures issued at discount and redeemable at par)

 

     

 

4. Issue at Par and Redeemable at Premium- When debentures are issued at par and redeemable at premium, then the following Journal entry is passed. In such case, the company did not suffer any loss at the time of issue but there will be loss at the time of redemption.

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

To Debenture Application A/c

 

(Debenture Application money received)

 

     

 

Debenture Application A/c

Dr.

Loss on Issue of Debenture A/c

Dr. (with the amount of premium on redemption)

 

To Debenture A/c

(with the face value of the debentures)

 

To Premium on Redemption of Debenture A/c

(with the amount of premium on redemption)

(Debentures issued at par and redeemable at premium)

 

 

5. Issued at Premium and Redemption at Premium- When the debentures are issued and redeemable at premium, then the following Journal entry is passed.

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

To Debenture Application A/c

 

(Debenture Application money received)

 

     

 

Debenture Application A/c

Dr.

Loss on Issue of Debenture A/c

Dr.  (with the amount of premium on redemption)

 

To Debenture A/c

(with the face value of the debentures)

 

To Securities Premium A/c

(with the amount of premium on issue)

 

To Premium on Redemption of Debenture A/c

(with the amount of premium on redemption)

(Debentures issued at premium and redeemable at

premium)

 

 

6. Issue of Discount and Redemption at Premium- When the debentures are issued at discount and redeemable at premium, then the following Journal entry is passed.

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

To Debenture Application A/c

 

(Debenture Application money received)

 

     

 

Debenture Application A/c

Dr.

Loss on Issue of Debenture A/c

Dr. (with the amount of discount on issue plus amount of premium on redemption)

 

To Debenture A/c

(with the face value of the debentures)

 

To Premium on Redemption of Debenture A/c

(with the amount of premium on redemption)

(Debentures issued at discount and redeemable at

premium)

 

 

 

Page No 143:

Question 6:

Differentiate between redemption of debentures out of capital and out of profits.

Answer:

Redemption of Debentures Out of Capital

When debentures are redeemed out of capital and no profits are utilised for redemption, then such redemption is termed as redemption out of capital. In such a situation, no profits are transferred to the Debenture Redemption Reserve (DRR).

As per the guideline laid down by Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) and the Section 117C of Company Act of 1956, the creation of DRR is mandatory (DRR). Therefore, it is not possible to redeem debentures purely out of capital, as it reduces the value of assets. The following companies are exempted from the creation of DRR.

1. Infrastructure companies (i.e. those companies that are engaged in the business of developing, maintaining and operating infrastructure facilities)

2. A Company that issues debentures with a maturity up to 18 months

Redemption of Debenture Out of Profits

When debentures are redeemed out of profit then no capital is utilised for redemption. Before redeeming the debentures profits are transferred to DRR from Profit and Loss Appropriation Account. The creation of DRR is mandatory as per the guidelines laid down by Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). SEBI mandates transferring amount equal to 50% of debentures issued to DRR before redeeming debentures. In this method, as profits are transferred to the DRR Account, thereby reducing the total amount of profits, therefore this method is termed as Redemption of Debentures Out of Profits. In this method, first of all, the required profits are transferred from Statement of Profit and Loss to the DRR Account. The working of which is shown in the Notes to Accounts of Reserves and Surplus (as prescribed in Revised Schedule VI). The final balance (after considering DRR) is shown as the sub-head 'Reserves and Surplus' under the main head of Shareholders' Funds on the Equity and Liabilities side of the Company's Balance Sheet. Lastly, when all the debentures are redeemed, then DRR account is closed by transferring its amount to the General Reserve.

Page No 143:

Question 7:

Explain the guidelines of SEBI for creating Debenture Redemption Reserve.

Answer:

The following are the main points of SEBI’s guidelines for creation of Debenture Redemption Reserve (DRR).

1. Every company that issues debentures with a maturity of more than 18 months shall create DRR.

2. An amount equal to 50% of debenture issued shall be transferred to DRR before starting redemption of debentures.

3. Creation of DRR is applicable only for Non-Convertible Debentures and for non-convertible part of Partly Convertible Debentures.

4. Any withdrawal from DRR is allowed only after 10% of debentures are redeemed.

Thus, as per the SEBI’s guidelines, 50% of the debentures issued should be redeemed out of the profits that are transferred to DRR and the remaining 50% of the debentures issued can be redeemed either out of profits or out of capital. Hence, no company can redeem all the debentures issued purely out of the capital.

As per the SEBI’s guidelines the following companies are exempted from the creation of DRR.

1. Infrastructure companies (i.e. those companies that are engaged in the business of developing, maintaining and operating infrastructure facilities)

2. A Company that issues debentures with a maturity up to 18 months

Page No 143:

Question 8:

Describe the steps for creating Sinking Fund for redemption of debentures.

Answer:

The various steps involved in the creation of Sinking Fund for redemption of debentures can be better understood by the help of the example explained below.

A Company issued 10% Debentures of Rs 5,00,000 for 3 years. The investment is expected to earn 6% p.a. The Sinking Fund table shows that 0.31411 invested annually at 6% amount to Rs 1 in 3 years.

Step 1: Calculate the amount of instalment to be required every year for investment with the help of the Sinking Fund table. Like in the example Rs 1,57,055 (i.e. 0.31411 × 5,00,000) is required every year.

Step 2: The amount of instalment calculated in the above step is transferred to the Debenture Redemption Fund (Sinking Fund) by debiting from Profit and Loss Appropriation Account.

Step 3: In the first year, the above instalment is invested to yield amount required for redemption of debenture by debiting Debenture Redemption Fund Investment Account.

Step 4: The interest on investment is received on half yearly or annual basis. In the example, the interest of Rs 9,423 is received on annual basis.

Step 5: The total amount of investment, i.e. interest plus instalment is invested in the subsequent year. In the example, Rs 1,66,478 (i.e. Rs 1,57,055 + Rs 9,423) is invested in the next year.

Step 6: Repeat the Step 2, 3, 4 for each subsequent years up to the end of the life of the debenture. In the year of redemption, the instalment (i.e. the last instalment) will be debited to the Profit and Loss Appropriation Account but will not be invested.

Step 7: In the year of redemption, the investment is sold off.

Step 8: The profit (loss) on the sale of the investment is transferred by debiting (crediting) Debenture Redemption Fund Investment Account to the Debenture Redemption Fund Account.

Step 9: The payment to the debenture holder is made.

Step 10: The balance of Debenture Redemption Fund Account if any, is transferred to the General Reserve.

Page No 143:

Question 9:

Can a company purchase its own debentures in the open market? Explain.

Answer:

Yes, a company can purchase its own debentures provided it is authorised by its Article of Association. As per the Company Act, if a company is authorised by its Article of Association, only then it may purchase its own debentures from the open market. The main purposes of such purchase are as follows:

 

1. For immediate cancellation of debenture liability, if the interest rate on its debenture is higher than the market rate of interest.

2. A company may also purchase its own debentures with the motive of investment and sell them at higher price in future and thereby earn profit.

 

A company may purchase its own debentures at discount or at premium for cancellation.

 

1. If Debentures are purchased at Discount for Cancellation

When the company purchases its own debentures at discount for cancellation, then the following Journal entries are recorded.

 

Own Debentures A/c

Dr.

 

To Bank A/c

 

(Own debentures purchased)

 

     

 

Debentures A/c

Dr. (with the face value)

 

To Own Debentures A/c

(with the amount paid)

 

To Profit on Cancellation of Own Debentures A/c

(with the difference between the face value and amount paid)

(Own debentures cancelled)

 

 

Profit on Cancellation of Own Debentures A/c

Dr.

 

To Capital Reserve A/c

 

(Profit on Cancellation of Own Debentures transferred to

Capital Reserve)

 

     

 

2. If Debentures are Purchased at Premium for Cancellation

 

Own Debentures A/c

Dr.

 

To Bank A/c

 

(Own debentures purchased)

 

     

 

Debentures A/c

Dr. (with the face value)

Loss on Redemption of Debentures A/c

(with the difference between Amount paid and face value)

 

To Own Debentures A/c

 

(Own Debentures cancelled)

 

     

 

 

Page No 143:

Question 10:

What is meant by conversion of debentures? Describe the method of such a conversion.

Answer:

When a debenture holder can convert his/her debentures into shares or new debentures after the expiry of a specified period of time, then it is known as redemption of debentures by conversion. As the company does not need to pay any funds for the redemption, so there is no need to maintain Debenture Redemption Reserve (DRR). The new shares or debentures may be issued at par, premium or at discount.

 

If a debenture holder exercises the conversion option, then the issue price of shares must be equal to or less than the amount actually received from debentures.

 

Accounting Treatment

1. For amount due to debenture holders

 

Debenture A/c

Dr.

 

To Debenture holders A/c

 

(Debentures redeemed)

 

     

 

2. For discharging liability to the debenture holders

 

Debenture holders A/c

Dr.

 

To Shares/Debentures (New) A/c

 

(Debenture holder amount discharged)

 

     

 

 

Page No 143:

Question 1:

G.Ltd. issued 75,00,000, 6% Debenture of Rs 50 each at par payable Rs 15 on application and Rs 35 on allotment, redeemable at par after 7 years from the date of issue of debenture. Record necessary entries in the books of Company.

Answer:

 

Book of G. Ltd.

 

Journal

 

Date

Particulars

L.F.

Debit

Amount

Rs

Credit

Amount

Rs

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

11,25,00,000

 

 

 

To 6% Debenture Application A/c

 

 

11,25,00,000

 

(Application money @ Rs 15 each received for 75,00,000 debentures)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6% Debenture Application A/c

Dr.

 

11,25,00,000

 

 

 

To 6% Debenture A/c

 

 

11,25,00,000

 

(Application money of 75,00,000 debentures transferred to 6% Debentures Account)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6% Debenture Allotment A/c

Dr.

 

26,25,00,000

 

 

 

To 6% Debenture A/c

 

 

26,25,00,000

 

(Allotment money @ Rs 35 each due for 75,00,000 debentures ) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

26,25,00,000

 

 

 

To 6% Debenture Allotment A/c

 

 

26,25,00,000

 

(Allotment money received @ Rs 35 each on 75,00,000 debentures)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

               

 

 

Page No 143:

Question 2:

Y.Ltd. issued 2,000, 6% Debentures of Rs 100 each payable as follows: Rs 25 on application; Rs 50 on allotment and Rs 25 on First and Final call.

Answer:

 

Books of Y Ltd.

 

Journal

 

Date

Particulars

L.F.

Debit

Amount

Rs

Credit

Amount

Rs

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

50,000

 

 

 

To 6% Debentures Application A/c

 

 

50,000

 

(Application money  @ Rs 25 each received for 2,000

6% Debentures)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6% Debenture Application A/c

Dr.

 

50,000

 

 

 

To 6% Debenture A/c

 

 

50,000

 

(Application money on 2,000 debentures  transferred to

6% Debentures Account)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6% Debenture Allotment A/c

Dr.

 

1,00,000

 

 

 

To 6% Debenture A/c

 

 

1,00,000

 

(Debenture Allotment money @ Rs 50 each due on 2,000

6% Debentures)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

1,00,000

 

 

 

To 6% Debenture Allotment A/c

 

 

1,00,000

 

(Allotment money for 2,000 6% Debentures received)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6% Debenture First and Final Call A/c

Dr.

 

50,000

 

 

 

To 6% Debenture A/c

 

 

50,000

 

(Debenture First and Final Call @ 25 each due on 2,000

6% Debentures)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

50,000

 

 

 

To 6% Debenture First and Final Call A/c

 

 

50,000

 

(First and Final Call for 2,000 6% Debentures received)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

             

 

 

Page No 143:

Question 3:

A.Ltd. issued 10,000, 10% Debentures of Rs 100 each at a premium of 5% payable as follows:

Rs 10 on Application;

Rs 20 along with premium on allotment and balance on First and Final call. Record necessary Journal Entries.

Answer:

 

Books of A. Ltd.

 

Journal

 

Date

Particulars

L.F.

Debit

Amount

Rs

Credit

Amount

Rs

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

1,00,000

 

 

 

To 10% Debentures Application A/c

 

 

1,00,000

 

(Application money received for 10,000, 10% Debenture Application @ Rs 10 each)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10% Debentures Application A/c

Dr.

 

1,00,000

 

 

 

To 10% Debenture A/c

 

 

1,00,000

 

(Application money @ Rs 10 each transferred to

10% Debenture Account)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10% Debenture Allotment A/c

Dr.

 

2,50,000

 

 

 

To 10% Debentures A/c

 

 

2,00,000

 

 

To Securities Premium A/c

 

 

50,000

 

(Allotment due @ Rs 25 each including premium Rs 5 on

10,000, 10% Debentures)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

2,50,000

 

 

 

To 10% Debenture Allotment A/c

 

 

2,50,000

 

(Allotment money received on allotment @ Rs 25 each for

10,000 10% Debentures)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10% Debenture First and Final Call A/c

Dr.

 

7,00,000

 

 

 

To 10% Debenture A/c

 

 

7,00,000

 

(First and Final Call @ Rs 70 each on 10,000

10% Debentures due)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

7,00,000

 

 

 

To 10% Debenture First and Final Call A/c

 

 

7,00,000

 

(Debenture First and Final Call received @ Rs 70 each for

10,000 10% Debentures)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

             

 

 



Page No 144:

Question 4:

A. Ltd. issued 90,00,000, 9% Debenture of Rs 50 each at a discount of 8%, redeemable at par any time after 9 years. Record necessary entries in the books of A. Ltd.

Answer:

 

Books of A. Ltd.

 

Journal

 

Date

Particulars

L.F.

Debit

Amount

Rs

Credit

Amount

Rs

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

41,40,00,000

 

 

Discount on Issue of Debenture A/c

Dr.

 

3,60,00,000

 

 

To 9% Debenture A/c

 

 

 

45,00,00,000

 

(Money received for 90,00,000 9% Debentures

@ Rs 50 each at discount of 8%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

             
             

 

Alternative Method:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

41,40,00,000

 

 

To 9% Debentures Application A/c

 

 

41,40,00,000

 

(Debenture Application money received  @ Rs 46 each

on 90,00,000  9% Debentures)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9% Debentures Application A/c

Dr.

 

41,40,00,000

 

 

Discount on issue of Debentures A/c

Dr.

 

3,60,00,000

 

 

To 9% Debenture A/c

 

 

4,50,00,000

 

(9% Debentures application money transferred to

9% Debenture Account)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

             
             

 

 

Page No 144:

Question 5:

A. Ltd. issued 4,000, 9% Debentures of Rs 100 each on the following terms:

Rs 20 on Application;

Rs 20 on Allotment;

Rs 30 on First call; and

Rs 30 on Final call.

The public applied for 4,800 Debentures. Applications for 3,600 Debentures were accepted in full. Applications for 800 Debentures were allotted 400 Debentures and applications for 400 Debentures were rejected.

Answer:

 

Books of A Ltd.

 

Date

Particulars

L.F.

Debit

Amount

Rs

Credit

Amount

Rs

 

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

96,000

 

 

 

 

To 9% Debenture Application A/c

 

 

96,000

 

 

(9% Debenture Application money received on 4,800 Debentures

@ 20 each)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9% Debenture Application A/c

Dr.

 

96,000

 

 

 

 

To 9% Debenture A/c

 

 

80,000

 

 

 

To 9% Debenture Allotment A/c

 

 

8,000

 

 

 

To Bank A/c

 

 

8,000

 

 

(9% Debenture Application money of 4000 debentures transferred to

Debentures Account, 400 debentures rejected returned and

remaining amount adjusted on allotment)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9% Debenture Allotment A/c

Dr.

 

80,000

 

 

 

 

To 9% Debenture A/c

 

 

80,000

 

 

(9% Debenture Allotment due on  4,000 Debentures @ Rs 20 each)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

72,000

 

 

 

 

To 9% Debenture Allotment A/c

 

 

72,000

 

 

(9% Debenture Allotment money received)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9% Debenture First Call A/c

Dr.

 

1,20,000

 

 

 

 

To 9% Debenture A/c

 

 

1,20,000

 

 

(9% Debenture First Call due on 4000 debentures @ Rs 30 each)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

1,20,000

 

 

 

 

To Debenture First Call A/c

 

 

1,20,000

 

 

(9% Debenture first call received for 4000 debentures

@ Rs 30 each)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9% Debenture Final Call A/c

Dr.

 

1,20,000

 

 

 

 

To 9% Debenture A/c

 

 

1,20,000

 

 

(9% Debenture Final Call due on 4000 debentures

@ Rs 30 each )

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

1,20,000

 

 

 

 

To 9% Debenture Final Call A/c

 

 

1,20,000

 

 

(9% Debenture Final Call received on 4000 debentures

@ Rs 30 each)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                 

 

 

Page No 144:

Question 6:

T. Ltd. offered 2,00,000, 8% Debenture of Rs 500 each on June 30, 2002 at a premium of 10% payable as Rs 200 on application (including premium) and balance on allotment, redeemable at par after 8 years. But application are received for 3,00,000 debenture and the allotment is made on pro-rata basis. All the money due on application and allotment is received. Record necessary entries regarding issue of debenture.

Answer:

 

Books of T. Ltd.

Journal

Date

Particulars

L.F.

Debit

Amount

Rs

Credit

Amount

Rs

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

6,00,00,000

 

 

 

To 8% Debenture Application A/c

 

 

6,00,00,000

 

(8% Debenture application money received for 3,00,000

debentures @ Rs 200 each)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8% Debenture Application A/c

Dr.

 

6,00,00,000

 

 

 

To 8% Debenture A/c

 

 

3,00,00,000

 

 

To 8% Debenture Allotment A/c

 

 

2,00,00,000

 

 

To Securities Premium A/c

 

 

1,00,00,000

 

(8% Debenture Application money of 2,00,000 debentures @

Rs 200 each including Rs 50 premium transferred to Debenture Account and rest of the amount adjusted on allotment)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8% Debenture Allotment A/c

Dr.

 

7,00,00,000

 

 

 

To 8% Debenture A/c

 

 

7,00,00,000

 

(8% Debenture allotment on 2,00,000 debentures @

Rs 350 due)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

5,00,00,000

 

 

 

To 8% Debenture Allotment A/c

 

 

5,00,00,000

 

(8% Debenture Allotment money received)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

             

 

Page No 144:

Question 7:

X.Ltd. invites application for the issue of 10,000, 14% debentures of Rs 100 each payable as to Rs 20 on application, Rs 60 on allotment and the balance on call. The company receives applications for 13,500 debentures, out of which applications for 8,000 debentures are allotted in full, 5,000 only 40% and the remaining rejected. The surplus money on partially allotted applications is utilised towards allotment. All the sums due are duly received.

Answer:

 

 

Books of X. Ltd.

 

Journal

 

Date

Particulars

L.F.

Debit

Amount

Rs

Credit

Amount

Rs

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

2,70,000

 

 

 

To 14% Debenture Application A/c

 

 

2,70,000

 

(14% Debenture application money for 13,500 debentures

@ 20 each received)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14% Debenture Application A/c

Dr.

 

2,70,000

 

 

 

To 14% Debenture A/c

 

 

2,00,000

 

 

To 14% Debenture Allotment A/c

 

 

60,000

 

 

To Bank

 

 

10,000

 

(14% Debenture Application money of 10,000 @ Rs 20 each

transferred to 14% Debentures Account and 500 debentures

were rejected and returned and rest of the amount adjusted

on allotment)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14% Debenture Allotment A/c

Dr.

 

6,00,000

 

 

 

To 14% Debenture A/c

 

 

6,00,000

 

(14% Debenture Allotment money due on 10,000 debentures @

Rs 60 each)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

5,40,000

 

 

 

To 14% Debenture Allotment A/c

 

 

5,40,000

 

(14% Debenture Allotment money received)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14% Debenture First and Final Call A/c

Dr.

 

2,00,000

 

 

 

To 14% Debenture A/c

 

 

2,00,000

 

(14% Debenture First and Final Call money due on 10,000

debentures @ 20 each)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

2,00,000

 

 

 

To 14% Debenture First and Final Call A/c

 

 

2,00,000

 

(14% Debenture First and Final Call money received on 10,000

debentures @ Rs 20 each)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Page No 144:

Question 8:

R.Ltd. offered 20,00,000, 10% Debenture of Rs 200 each at a discount of 7% redeemable at premium of 8% after 9 years. Record necessary entries in the books of R. Ltd.

Answer:

 

Books of R.Ltd.

 

Journal

 

Date

Particulars

L.F.

Debit

Amount

Rs

Credit

Amount

Rs

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

37,20,00,000

 

 

 

To 10% Debenture Application & Allotment A/c

 

 

37,20,00,000

 

(Debenture Application and Allotment money received

for 20,00,000 10% Debentures @ Rs 200 each)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10% Debenture Application and Allotment A/c

Dr.

 

37,20,00,000

 

 

Loss on Issue of Debenture A/c

Dr.

 

3,20,00,000

 

 

Discount on Issue of Debentures A/c

Dr.

 

2,80,00,000

 

 

 

To 10% Debenture A/c

 

 

40,00,00,000

 

 

To Premium on Redemption of Debentures A/c

 

 

3,20,00,000

 

(Allotment of 20,00,000 debenture @ Rs 200 each at 7%

discount with the term of  8% premium on redemption)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

               

 

Page No 144:

Question 9:

M.Ltd. took over assets of Rs 9,00,00,000 and liabilities of Rs 70,00,000 of S.Ltd. and issued 8%Debenture of Rs 100 each. Record necessary entries in the books of M. Ltd.

Answer:

 

Books of M. Ltd.

 

Journal

 

Date

Particulars

L.F.

Debit

Amount

Rs

Credit

Amount

Rs

 

Sundry Assets

Dr.

 

9,00,00,000

 

 

 

To Sundry Liabilities A/c

 

 

70,00,000

 

 

To S.Ltd.

 

 

8,30,00,000

 

(Assets and liabilities of S. Ltd. taken over)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S. Ltd.

Dr.

 

8,30,00,000

 

 

 

To 8% Debenture A/c

 

 

8,30,00,000

 

(8,30,000 8% debentures @ 100 each issued to S Ltd. in

consideration of assets and liabilities)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

               

 

 

Page No 144:

Question 10:

B.Ltd. purchased assets of the book value of Rs 4,00,000 and took over the liability of Rs 50,000 from Mohan Bros. It was agreed that the purchase consideration, settled at Rs,3,80,000, be paid by issuing debentures of Rs 100 each.

What Journal entries will be made in the following three cases, if debentures are issued: (a) at par; (b) at discount; (c) at premium of 10%? It was agreed that any fraction of debentures be paid in cash.

Answer:

 

 

Case (a)

Book of B. Ltd.

 

Journal

 

Date

Particulars

L.F.

Debit

Amount

Rs

Credit

Amount

Rs

 

Sundry Assets A/c

Dr.

 

4,00,000

 

 

Goodwill A/c

Dr.

 

30,000

 

 

 

To Sundry Liabilities A/c

 

 

50,000

 

 

To Mohan Bros.

 

 

3,80,000

 

(Assets and liabilities of Mohan Bros. taken over)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mohan Bros.

Dr.

 

3,80,000

 

 

 

To Debenture A/c

 

 

3,80,000

 

(3,800 debentures of 100 each issued to Mohan Bros. in

consideration of assets and liabilities)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

               

 

Case (b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sundry Assets A/c

Dr.

 

4,00,000

 

 

Goodwill A/c

Dr.

 

30,000

 

 

 

To Sundry Liabilities A/c

 

 

50,000

 

 

To Mohan Bros.

 

 

3,80,000

 

(Assets and liabilities of Mohan Bros. taken over)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mohan Bros.

Dr.

 

3,80,000

 

 

Discount on Issue of Debenture A/c

Dr.

 

42,222

 

 

 

To Debenture A/c

 

 

4,22,200

 

 

To Bank A/c

 

 

22

 

(Issued 4,222 debentures of Rs 100 each at 10% discount

and balance paid in cash)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

               

 

Case (c)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sundry Assets A/c

Dr.

 

4,00,000

 

 

Goodwill A/c

Dr.

 

30,000

 

 

 

To Sundry Liabilities A/c

 

 

50,000

 

 

To Mohan Bros.

 

 

3,80,000

 

(Assets and liabilities of Mohan Bros. taken over)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mohan Bros

Dr.

 

3,80,000

 

 

 

To Debentures A/c

 

 

3,45,400

 

 

To Securities Premium A/c

 

 

34,540

 

 

To Bank A/c

 

 

60

 

(Issued of 3,454 debentures at 10% premium and balance

paid in cash)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

               

 

 



Page No 145:

Question 11:

X.Ltd. purchased a Machinery from Y for an agreed purchase consideration of Rs 4,40,000 to be satisfied by the issue of 12% debentures of Rs 100 each at a premium of Rs 10 per debenture. Journalise the transactions.

Answer:

 

Books of X. Ltd.

 

Journal

 

Date

Particulars

L.F.

Debit

Amount

Rs

Credit

Amount

Rs

 

Machinery A/c

Dr.

 

4,40,000

 

 

To Y

 

 

4,40,000

 

(Machinery purchased from Y)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Y

Dr.

 

4,40,000

 

 

To 12% Debentures A/c

 

 

4,00,000

 

To Securities Premium A/c

 

 

40,000

 

(Allotted 4,000 debentures of Rs 100 each at a premium

of Rs 10 per debenture in consideration of Machinery

purchased)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

               

 

 

Page No 145:

Question 12:

X.Ltd. issued 15,000, 10% debentures of Rs 100 each. Give journal entries and the Balance Sheet in each of the following cases:

(i) The debentures are issued at a premium of 10%;

(ii) The debentures are issued at a discount of 5%;

(iii) The debentures are issued as a collateral security to bank against a loan of Rs 12,00,000; and

(iv) The debentures are issued to a supplier of machinery costing Rs 13,50,000.

Answer:

(i)

Books of X. Ltd.

Journal

 

Date

Particulars

L.F.

Debit

Amount

Rs

Credit

Amount Rs

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

16,50,000

 

 

 

To 10% Debentures A/c

 

 

15,00,000

 

 

To Securities Premium A/c

 

 

1,50,000

 

(Issued 15,000, 10% debentures of Rs 100 each at

10% premium)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

               

X Ltd.

Balance Sheet

Particulars

Note No.

Amount 

(Rs)

I. Equity and Liabilities

 

 

1. Shareholders’ Funds

 

 

 a. Reserves and Surplus

1

1,50,000

2. Non-Current Liabilities

 

 

a. Long-Term Borrowings

2

15,00,000

3. Current Liabilities

 

 

Total

 

16,50,000

 

 

 

II. Assets

 

 

1. Non-Current Assets

 

 

2. Current Assets

 

 

a. Cash and Cash Equivalents

3

16,50,000

Total

 

16,50,000

 

 

 

NOTES TO ACCOUNTS

Note No.

Particulars

Amount

(Rs)

 

 

 

1

Reserves and Surplus

 

 

Securities Premium

1,50,000

 

 

 

2

Long-Term Borrowings

 

 

10% Debentures (Secured)

15,00,000

 

 

 

3

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

 

Cash at Bank

16,50,000

 

 

 

(ii)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

14,25,000

 

 

Discount on Issue of Debentures A/c

Dr.

 

75,000

 

 

 

To 10% Debentures

 

 

15,00,000

 

(Issued 15,000 10% Debenture of Rs 100 each at

5% discount)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

               

X Ltd.

Balance Sheet

Particulars

Note No.

Amount 

(Rs)

I. Equity and Liabilities

 

 

1. Shareholder’s Funds

 

 

2. Non-Current Liabilities

 

 

a. Long-Term Borrowings

1

15,00,000

3. Current Liabilities

 

 

Total

 

15,00,000

 

 

 

II. Assets

 

 

1. Non-Current Assets

 

 

a. Other Non-Current Assets

2

75,000

2. Current Assets

 

 

a. Cash and Cash Equivalents

3

14,25,000

Total

 

15,00,000

 

 

 

NOTES TO ACCOUNTS

Note No.

Particulars

Amount

(Rs)

 

 

 

1

Long-Term Borrowings

 

 

10% Debentures (Secured)

15,00,000

 

 

 

2

Other Non-Current Assets

 

 

Discount on Issue of Debentures

75,000

 

 

 

3

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

 

Cash at Bank

14,25,000

 

 

 

(iii) No entry will be passed for issuing debentures as a collateral security 

X Ltd.

Balance Sheet

Particulars

Note

No.

Amount

(Rs)

I. Equity and Liabilities

 

 

1. Shareholders’ Funds

 

 

2. Non-Current Liabilities

 

 

a. Long-Term Borrowings

1

12,00,000

3. Current Liabilities

 

 

Total

 

12,00,000

 

 

 

II. Assets

 

 

1. Non-Current Assets

 

 

2. Current Assets

 

 

a. Cash and Cash Equivalents

2

12,00,000

Total

 

12,00,000

 

 

 

NOTES TO ACCOUNTS

Note No.

Particulars

Amount

(Rs)

 

 

 

1

Long-Term Borrowings

 

 

Bank Loan (Secured against issue Debentures of Rs 12,00,000)

 

12,00,000

 

 

 

2

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

 

Cash at Bank

12,00,000

 

 

 

Alternative Method

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Debenture Suspense A/c

Dr.

 

15,00,000

 

 

 

To 10% Debentures A/c

 

 

15,00,000

 

(Issued 15,000 10% Debentures of Rs 100 each as collateral security to bank against a loan of Rs 12,00,000)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                 

X Ltd.

Balance Sheet

Particulars

Note No.

Amount 

(Rs)

I. Equity and Liabilities

 

 

1. Shareholders’ Fund

 

 

2. Non-Current Liabilities

 

 

a. Long-Term Borrowings

1

12,00,000

3. Current Liabilities

 

 

Total

 

12,00,000

 

 

 

II. Assets

 

 

1. Non-Current Assets

 

 

2. Current Assets

 

 

a. Cash and Cash Equivalents

2

12,00,000

Total

 

12,00,000

 

 

 

NOTES TO ACCOUNTS

Note No.

Particulars

Amount

(Rs)

 

 

 

1

Long Term Borrowings

 

 

Secured:

 

 

Bank Loan

12,00,000

 

10 % Debentures (Secured against issue of Debentures of Rs 12,00,000)

15,00,000

 

 

 

Less: Debenture Suspense Account

15,00,000

-

 

 

12,00,000

2

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

 

Cash at Bank

12,00,000

 

 

 

(iv)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Machinery A/c

Dr.

 

13,50,000

 

 

 

To Vendor A/c

 

 

13,50,000

 

(Machinery purchased from vendor)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vendor A/c

Dr.

 

13,50,000

 

 

Discount on Issue of Debentures A/c

Dr.

 

1,50,000

 

 

 

To 10% Debenture A/c

 

 

15,00,000

 

(15,000 10% Debentures @ Rs 100 each issued at

10% discount to the vendor in consideration of

Machinery of Rs 13,50,000)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

               

X Ltd.

Balance Sheet

Particulars

Note No.

Amount 

(Rs)

I. Equity and Liabilities

 

 

1. Shareholders’ Funds

 

 

2. Non-Current Liabilities

 

 

a. Long Term Borrowings

1

15,00,000

3. Current Liabilities

 

 

Total

 

15,00,000

 

 

 

II. Assets

 

 

1. Non-Current Assets

 

 

a. Fixed Assets

 

 

i. Tangible Assets

2

13,50,000

b. Other Non-Current Assets

3

1,50,000

2. Current Assets

 

 

Total

 

15,00,000

 

 

 

NOTES TO ACCOUNTS

Note No.

Particulars

Amount

(Rs)

 

 

 

1

Long Term Borrowings

 

 

10% Debentures (Secured)

15,00,000

 

 

 

2

Tangible Assets

 

 

Plant and Machinery

13,50,000

 

 

 

3

Other Non-Current Assets

 

 

Discount on Issue of Debentures

1,50,000

 

 

 

 

Page No 145:

Question 13:

Journalise the following:

(i) A debenture issued at Rs 95, repayable at Rs 100;

(ii) A debenture issued at Rs 95, repayable at Rs 105; and

(iii) A debenture issued at Rs 100, repayable at Rs 105;

The face value of debenture in each of the above cases is Rs 100.

Answer:

 

S.No.

Particulars

L.F.

Debit

Amount

Rs

Credit

Amount Rs

(i)

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

95

 

 

Discount on Issue of Debenture A/c

Dr.

 

5

 

 

 

To Debenture A/c

 

 

100

 

(Debenture of Rs 100 issued at Rs 5 discount

with the term repayable at Rs 100)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(ii)

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

95

 

 

Loss on Issue of Debenture A/c

Dr.

 

10

 

 

 

To Debenture A/c

 

 

100

 

 

To Premium on Redemption of Debentures

 

 

5

 

(Debenture of Rs 100 issued at a discount of

Rs 5 and with the term repayable at Rs 105)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(iii)

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

100

 

 

Loss on Issue of Debenture A/c

Dr.

 

5

 

 

 

To Debenture A/c

 

 

100

 

 

To Premium on Redemption of Debenture A/c

 

 

5

 

(Debenture of Rs 100 issued with the term

repayable at Rs 105)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Page No 145:

Question 14:

A.Ltd. issued 50,00,000, 8% Debenture of Rs 100 at a discount of 6% on April 01, 2009 redeemable at premium of 4% by draw of lots as under:

20,00,000 Debentures on March, 2011

10,00,000 Debentures on March, 2013

20,00,000 Debentures on March, 2014

Compute the amount of discount to be written-off in each year till debentures are paid. Also prepare discount/loss on issue of debenture account.

Answer:

 

Loss on issue of debenture = 6% (discount on issue) + 4% (premium on redemption) = 10%

 

 

 

At the end of

Debenture Outstanding

Ratio

Loss to be written off every year

March 2010

50,00,00,000

5

=

1,38,88,889

March 2011

50,00,00,000

5

=

1,38,88,889

March 2012

30,00,00,000

3

=

83,33,333

March 2013

30,00,00,000

3

=

83,33,333

March 2014

20,00,00,000

2

=

55,55,556

 

 

18

 

 

Rs 5,00,00,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Loss on Issue of Debenture Account

 

Dr.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cr.

 

Date

Particulars

J.F.

Amount

Rs

Date

Particulars

J.F.

Amount

Rs

2009

April 01

Debenture

 

5,00,00,000

2010

March 31

Profit and Loss

 

1,38,88,889

 

 

 

 

 

Balance c/d

 

3,61,11,111

 

 

 

5,00,00,000

 

 

 

5,00,00,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2010

April 01

Balance b/d

 

3,61,11,111

2011

March 31

Profit and Loss

 

1,38,88,889

 

 

 

 

 

Balance c/d

 

2,22,22,222

 

 

 

3,61,11,111

 

 

 

3,61,11,111

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2011

April 01

Balance b/d

 

2,22,22,222

2012

March 31

Profit and Loss

 

83,33,333

 

 

 

 

 

Balance c/d

 

1,38,88,889

 

 

 

2,22,22,222

 

 

 

2,22,22,222

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2012

April 01

Balance b/d

 

1,38,88,889

2013

March 31

Profit and Loss

 

83,33,333

 

 

 

 

 

Balance c/d

 

55,55,556

 

 

 

1,38,88,889

 

 

 

1,38,88,889

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2013

April 01

Balance b/d

 

55,55,556

2014

March 31

Profit and Loss

 

55,55,556

 

 

 

55,55,556

 

 

 

55,55,556

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                 

 

 

Page No 145:

Question 15:

A company issues the following debentures:

(i) 10,000, 12% debentures of Rs 100 each at par but redeemable at premium of 5% after 5 years;

(ii) 10,000, 12% debentures of Rs 100 each at a discount of 10% but redeemable at par after 5 years;

(iii) 5,000, 12% debentures of Rs 1,000 each at a premium of 5% but redeemable at par after 5 years;

(iv) 1,000, 12% debentures of Rs 100 each issued to a supplier of machinery costing Rs 95,000. The debentures are repayable after 5 years; and

(v) 300, 12% debentures of Rs 100 each as a collateral security to a bank which has advanced a loan of Rs 25,000 to the company for a period of 5 years.

Pass the journal entries to record the: (a) issue of debentures; and (b) repayment of debentures after the given period.

Answer:

 

 

In the books of …………..

Journal

a) Issue of Debentures

 

 

S. No.

Particulars

L.F.

Debit

Amount

Rs

Credit

Amount

Rs

(i)

Bank A/c

Dr.

 

10,00,000

 

 

 

To 12% Debenture Application A/c

 

 

10,00,000

 

(Debenture Application money of 10,000 12% debentures

@ 100 each received)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12% Debenture Application A/c

Dr.

 

10,00,000

 

 

Loss on Issue of Debenture A/c

Dr.

 

50,000

 

 

 

To 12% Debenture A/c

 

 

10,00,000

 

 

To Premium on Redemption of Debenture A/c

 

 

50,000