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Page No 175:

Question 1:

Briefly enumerate the important sources of recruitment.

 

Answer:

Recruitment refers to the process of searching and attracting the required personnel for a job. In other words, it is the process of finding the potential candidates and instigating them to apply for the job. The following are the two important sources of recruitment.

i. Internal sources: Internal sources of recruitment refer to the sources that are within the organisation. That is, through internal sources the jobs are filled up from inside the organisation. It can take the form of transfers and promotions. Through transfers, the job of a specific profile is filled by shifting a suitable person working in another department of the organisation to the concerned department. Similarly, through promotions, higher position job vacancies in the organisation are filled by promoting the lower level employees.

ii. External Sources: External sources of recruitment refer to the sources of recruitment that are outside the organisation. Through external sources the jobs in an organisation are filled by bringing in new people. For example, one of the external sources of recruitment is 'direct recruitment' which involves putting up a notice board outside office and then following the recruitment process on a specified date. Similarly, placement agencies work as an external source as they act as a match maker for the job seekers and job providers.

Page No 175:

Question 2:

What is meant by recruitment? How is it different from selection?

 

Answer:

Recruitment refers to the procedure of finding and stimulating the required candidates to apply for a particular job. As against this, selection is the procedure of screening and choosing the required candidates out of the gathered pool. 

The following points highlight the difference between recruitment and selection.

Basis of Difference

Recruitment

Selection

Meaning

Recruitment refers to the process of finding and instigating the required personnel for a job. 

Selection refers to the process of choosing the right candidate out of the gathered pool developed at the time of recruitment. 

Sequence

In the staffing process, recruitment is at the second stage.

In the staffing process, selection is at the third stage and succeeds recruitment.

Employment Contract

The candidates gathered under recruitment are not offered any employment contract from the organisation. 

The candidates who successfully complete the selection process are offered an employment contract by the organisation containing such information as date of joining, terms and conditions, etc. 

Characteristic

Recruitment process involves attracting as many persons as possible for the job. 

Selection process involves choosing only the appropriate candidate and rejecting the non-suitable ones.

 

 

Page No 175:

Question 3:

Define training. How is it different from education?

 

Answer:

Training refers to the enhancement of skills, abilities and competence required for a specific job profile. On the other hand, education refers to the process of improving the overall knowledge and understanding of the employees. The following points highlight the difference between training and education. 

Basis of Difference

Training

Education

Meaning

Training implies increasing the skills and abilities required to perform a specific job. 

Education implies increasing the overall knowledge and understanding of the employees. 

Scope

Training is a narrow concept and relates to development of understanding relating to only a specific job. 

Education is a wider concept and relates to the overall development of understanding.

Focus

It focuses on the goals of the organisation. 

It focuses on the individual goals. 

 

Page No 175:

Question 4:

Distinguish between training and development.

 

Answer:

Training and development are related yet distinct concepts. Though both the concepts focus on improvement of an individual but the perspectives are different. Training on one hand refers to providing the skills and abilities for a particular job. Development on the other hand, refers to the concept of growth of an individual as a whole. 

The following points highlight the difference between training and development. 

Basis of Difference

Training

Development

Meaning

Training refers to the process of enhancing the skills and competence of an employee that are required to perform a specific job. 

Development refers to the process of overall growth of an employee. 

Focus

The focus of training is the specific job requirement and is thereby, job-oriented. 

The focus of development is overall growth and is thereby, career-oriented. 

Scope

Training is narrow in scope and focuses on how one can become more efficient in the intended job. 

Development is wider in scope and focuses on the overall personality development of the employee. Training is a part of development. 

 

 

Page No 175:

Question 5:

Why are internal sources of recruitment considered to be more economical?

 

Answer:

Internal sources of recruitment refer to the sources that are endogenous to the organisation, that is, within the organisation. There are two ways of filling the jobs internally, namely transfers and promotions. It has an advantage of being more economical than the other sources of recruitment. Filling the jobs through internal sources is cheaper in terms of time as well as money. On one hand, the time spent in the whole recruitment and selection process is diminished to a large extent through internal recruitment. On the other hand, it lowers the cost by saving the expenditure on advertisement and other related processes. Along with this, the money spent on training of the new employees is also curtailed. Thus, in contrast to other sources, the internal sources of recruitment are more economical in nature.

 

Page No 175:

Question 6:

What is the importance of staffing function in today's environment?

 

Answer:

Staffing is an important function of management as it takes care of the manpower requirement of any organisation. In today’s environment with rapid changes taking place in technology, size of the organisations, etc. finding the right people for the job becomes critical. In such a scenario, proper staffing process plays an important role in the organisations. 

Following are the highlighted benefits of staffing in the current world scenario.

(i) Finding Competent Personnel: Staffing helps in finding and choosing the right personnel required for a job. 

(ii) Improves Efficiency: By ensuring that right people are placed for right jobs, the overall efficiency and performance increases. 

(iii) Growth of the Organisation: It ensures survival and growth of the organisation by appointing efficient and competent employees for various jobs.

(iv) Optimum Utilisation of Human Resources: Through proper manpower planning, staffing prevents over-utilisation or under-utilisation of manpower. In addition, it avoids interruption in working efficiency by suggesting, in advance if there is any unfilled job.

(v) Job Satisfaction: Compensation and fair rewards given to the employees provide them self-confidence and job-satisfaction. It encourages them to work diligently and give their best to the organisation.

Page No 175:

Question 1:

Define the staffing process and the various steps involved in it?

 

Answer:

Staffing process refers to the procedure of filling the vacancies and keeping them filled. It focuses on timely fulfillment of the human resource required within the organisation. According to 'Theo Haimann', 'staffing pertains to recruitment, selection, development, training and compensation of subordinate managers. This definition includes the steps involved in the staffing process. Following is a brief description of various steps involved in staffing.

(i) Estimation of the Required Manpower: The process of estimating manpower requirement is the basic step in the process of staffing. It refers to knowing the number and the kind of persons that are required in the organisation. Estimation process involves two steps-workload analysis and workforce analysis. Work load analysis implies an estimation of the number and the kind of persons required for various jobs. On the other hand, workforce analysis implies an estimation of the existing persons. The two-step analysis reveals whether there is any overstaffing or understaffing in the organisation and thereby, forms the basis of the staffing process. For example, a situation of understaffing would imply that more personnel are required to be appointed and a situation of overstaffing would imply that some of the existing personnel need to be removed. 

(ii) Recruitment/Searching: It refers to enlisting and searching the suitable candidates for the job. It is the process of searching the appropriate people for the job and influencing them to apply for the job. Recruitment creates a pool of prospective candidates for a job. It involves searching through various sources that includes internal sources (transfers and promotions) and external sources (advertising and placement agencies). It forms the basis for the selection process by attracting the aspirants towards the organisation. 

(iii) Selection: Selection involves choosing the right candidate out of the gathered pool of aspirants which is created after recruitment process. It is a rigorous procedure and comprises of series of tests, interviews, etc. The candidates who are not able to negotiate the selection process are rejected. It ensures that only the competent and the best ones are selected for the job. It is a highly important process as it forms the basis for working efficiency of the organisation.

(iv) Induction and Placement: Once the selection is done it becomes important to make the selected employees familiar with the working environment of the organisation. Induction involves giving a brief overview about the workplace, introducing them to other employees and the managers and making them comfortable with the work environment. Placement refers to occupying the position by the employee for which he has been selected. 

(v) Training and Development: Next step in the staffing process is training and development of the employee. Both the process emphasise on improving the employee competence. Training is a process of increasing the employee’s capabilities and skills required for performing the job. Development, on the other hand, focuses on the overall growth of the employee by enhancing his thinking and understanding capabilities. They help the workers to upgrade their knowledge and increase their efficiency. Moreover, training and development motivates the workers and provides them opportunities for growth and career development. 

(vi) Appraisal: Performance appraisal is an important aspect of any organisation as it helps in evaluating the work of the individuals. Appraisal implies assessing the performance of the employee against certain predetermined standards. In addition, under performance appraisal the superior provides proper feedback to the employee so that right measures can be taken for increasing the working efficiency.

(vii) Promotions: Every employee needs encouragement and motivation for continuing the work with right efficiency. Promotion of the employee in terms of position, pay, etc. helps in providing job satisfaction to the employee and encourages them to realise their potential. Promotions serve the long term interests of the employees.

(viii) Compensation: Worth of the job is an important aspect to determine. All organisations need to establish the right pay or salary for each job. Compensation entails the price of a job along with the rewards that the employee deserves. Compensation provided to the employee can be in direct terms (that is, wages and salaries) as well as in indirect terms (such as insurance, bonus, etc.).

Page No 175:

Question 2:

Explain the procedure for selection of employees.

 

Answer:

Selection is a procedure to choose the appropriate candidates out of the numerous aspirants. It is a rigorous process as it involves various stages of tests and interviews. Selection process aims at getting the best out of the recruited pool so that work efficiency can be maximised. Following are the steps involved in the selection process.

(i) Screening: To begin with, it is necessary to eliminate those candidates who do not fulfill the basic criteria and qualification required for the job. This is done through preliminary screening by examining the information provided in the application forms. These forms may be in the form of online application or paper applications. Along with this, preliminary interviews can also be conducted to bring out the facts which are not written in the application forms and thereby, help in rejecting the misfits.

(ii) Test: Test is a mechanism that helps in judging certain characteristics of the aspirants. These characteristics can be regarding skills, knowledge, intelligence, etc. Various forms of testing are Intelligence test, Aptitude test, Personality test, Trade test and Interest test. They assess the individuals on different platforms and find out the suitable candidates for further selection process. For example, personality tests judge the candidate for characteristics such as maturity level, emotional control, etc. Similarly, trade test examine the skill and knowledge of the individual. 

(iii) Personal Interview: Personal interviews are an integral part of selection process that includes conversation of the candidates with the managers. Herein, in-depth conversations are conducted to judge the suitability of the individual for the job. Sometimes, the individual may also seek information regarding the organisation in such interviews.

(iv) Background Checks: Once the individuals pass through the interviews, some organisations ask for references of other persons such as previous employers, other known persons. From these references the organisation aims at verifying the information provided by the candidate. Moreover, these references also act as a source of additional information of the candidate. 

(v) Selection Decision: After the tests and interviews are completed, the final selection is done. The appropriate candidates are chosen by the concerned managers.

(vi) Medical Examination: Few organisations emphasise on conducting a medical examination to check the health of the candidates. The job offer is given after they are declared fit by a medical practitioner.

(vii) Job Offer: Next step is offering the job letter to the selected applicants. It refers to an appointment letter given by the organisation to confirm that the individual has been selected. Such letter generally comprises of such information as date of joining and the time of reporting.

(viii) Employment Contract: Once the job letter is given, the candidates have to fill-up some forms that are necessary for the future references. One such form is attestation form that holds information about the candidates which are attested by him/her. Another document is the contract of employment. It comprises of details such as salary, date and terms of joining, leave rules, working hours, allowances, etc.

Page No 175:

Question 3:

What are the advantages of training to the individual and to the organisation?

 

Answer:

Training is an important aspect of any organisation. It aims at building the skills and abilities of the individuals to perform a job. Training is an essential part of the job which attempts at improving the aptitude and knowledge of a person as per the job requirement. With the ever changing business environment, the complexity of the jobs has increased. Thereby, training has become all the more essential. The following are the highlighted benefits of training to the employee and the organisation.

Benefits to the Employee

(i) Better Career Opportunities: Training enhances the skill and knowledge of the employees and thereby, helps in improving their career prospects. 

(ii) Earn More: By helping the individual to learn more it assist them to earn more. Training enhances the individuals understanding and knowledge. Thereby, it improves their efficiency and performance. As a result, it gives them a chance to earn more.

(iii) Less Accident Prone: Training attempts to make the employees more adept and efficient in handling the machines. Jobs that require the employees to work with complex machines and in more accident-prone areas need to emphasise strongly on training and development, as it helps them in taking precautionary actions. Thus, it makes the employee less prone to accidents.

(iv) Self-Confidence: Development and training direct the individuals to work more efficiently that in turn builds up required morale within the individuals. It increases their self-confidence and self-reliance thereby, contributing to higher job-satisfaction.

 

Benefits to the Organisation

(i) Less Wastage: Training is a concept that involves systematic learning of work. It is a more efficient way of learning than any hit and trial method. This leads to less wastage of time and money. Thereby, it helps in optimum utilisation of resources.

(ii) Higher Profits: By developing the individuals and making them more efficient, training enhances their productivity in work. Due to increase in both qualitative and quantitative productivity, the profits of the company rise. 

(iii) Managerial Efficiency: Training prepares the employees to face new challenges in different situations. This helps them in building effective responses to various situations. Training also equips the future managers to take precautionary step in case of emergency.

(iv) Reduced Absenteeism: Effective training helps in boosting the morale of the employees. Thereby, it helps in reducing the rate of absenteeism and employee turnover. 

Page No 175:

Question 4:

The staffing function is performed by every manager and not necessarily by a separate department. Explain.

 

Answer:

Staffing refers to the function of finding the right people for the right job. It is an important aspect of management as it ensures that the right people with the needed qualifications are chosen for the work. 

It ensures that the vacancies are filled and always remain occupied. Staffing involves various stages including recruitment through various sources, right selection out of the applicants, placement and orientation, training of the employees, etc. Managing the human element is a requisite function of any organisation as it serves the basis of the level of efficiency of the organisation. Thus, success of any organisation depends on how effectively this function can be performed and to what extent the productivity can be increased with efficient staffing. Nowadays, it is seen that organisations that are large in size, maintain a separate department for dealing with this function. This department is generally known as 'Human Resource Department'. Under this department, the various tasks of staffing are performed by specialised managers. Along with staffing they also take care of the labour grievances. Human resource management thus act as a link between the workers and the managers. 

However, staffing does not necessarily require a separate department and rather, is a function to be performed by every manager himself. Staffing forms an essential part of management. Managers here play an important role as they make sure about the optimum utilisation of the manpower. It is their task to watch if there is any vacancy and also, if any extra manpower is needed. Subsequently, they should work on how the recruitment has to be done, what qualifications are necessary for the applicants to apply for the job, and to what extent, training is necessary for that particular job. As managers are more closely related to the workers, they can work on the staffing process more efficiently. They can set the required qualifications for a particular job according to their need and work. For example, if a manager needs two subordinates to work under him then he'll be able to mention the requirements more clearly. Similarly, they can perform the task of recruiting the personnel more smoothly as they would know what kind of personnel he would require and through what source he can gather an efficient pool of applicants, may it be internal or external sources, depending on his needs. As the main seekers of the employees, they can carry out the selection process of the right candidate in the best possible manner. Along with this, managers can also perform other important aspects of staffing namely, appraisal, promotions and career planning. 

Thus, it can be said that staffing function is performed by every manager and not necessarily by a separate department.

Page No 175:

Question 1:

The workers of a factory are unable to work on new machines and always demand for help of supervisor. The Supervisor is overburdened with their frequent calls. Suggest the remedy.

Answer:

The workers can be provided training with regard to the use of machines. Training refers to the process of increasing the employees’ capabilities and skills required for performance of their job. It would help the employees develop the skills required for the use of machinery and perform their task in a better manner.
Training would help both the supervisor as well as the employees in the following manner.

1. With training the wastages of time as well as money would be reduced, thereby ensuring optimal utilisation of resources.
2. The burden of supervisor would be reduced.
3. Training would prepare the employees to face new challenges and enable them to respond to various situations effectively.
4. It would make the employees more adept efficient in handling machines and thereby, make them less prone to accidents.

Page No 175:

Question 2:

The workers of a factory remain idle because of lack of knowledge of hi-tech machines. Frequent visit of engineer is made which causes high overhead charges. How can this problem be removed.

Answer:

The above mentioned problem can be removed by providing off-the-job training to the workers. In this regard, vestibule training can be provided to the workers since the machines are hi-tech and sophisticated. The vestibule training will help in reducing the frequent visit of engineer and save the high overhead charges as in this type of training, dummy models of real working environment are created in classrooms outside the workplace. The trainees are made to work on the dummy machines and equipment, and only when they acquire adequate expertise in their use they are shifted to the actual workplace.

Page No 175:

Question 3:

The quality of Production is not as per standards. On investigation it was observed that most of the workers were not fully aware of the proper operation of the machinery. What could be the way to improve the accuracy?

Answer:

The workers can be provided on-the-job training such as apprenticeship training. The employees can be put under a master worker who would guide them in the proper use of the machinery. The employees can work under the master worker for a pre-defined amount of time and then gradually move to do the task themselves under the supervision of the master workers. Once the employees complete the training they would be able to work with greater accuracy and efficiency.

Page No 175:

Question 4:

An organisation provides security services. It requires such candidates who are reliable and don’t leak out the secrets of their clients. What step should be incorporated in selection process?

Answer:

As a part of the selection process, selection tests can be conducted. One of the important tests with regard to the given situation is personality test. Such tests are developed to test the overall personality of the individual and get some information with regard to his or her nature, state of mind, maturity level, reactions, etc.

Page No 175:

Question 5:

A company is manufacturing paper plates and bowls. It produces 100000 plates and bowls each day. Due to local festival, it got an urgent order of extra 50,000 plates bowls. Advise how the company will fulfill its order and which method of recruitment would you suggest.

Answer:

In the given scenario, company should approach labour contractors. This is because the production of paper plates and bowls require low skilled workers or labourers which can be fulfilled by labour contractors. Labour contractors maintain a close contact with labourers and other workers and make the right number of workers available at short notice. 



Page No 176:

Question 1:

A company X limited is setting up a new plant in India for manufacturing auto components. India is a highly competitive and cost effective production base in this sector. Many reputed car manufacturers source their auto components from here.

X limited is planning to capture about 40% of the market share in India and also export to the tune of at least $5 million in about 2 years of its planned operations. To achieve these targets it requires a highly trained and motivated work force. You have been retained by the company to advise it in this matter.
While giving answers keep in mind the sector the company is operating.

Questions
1. Outline the process of staffing the company should follow.
2. Which sources of recruitment the company should rely upon. Give reasons for your recommendation.
3. Outline the process of selection the company should follow with reasons.
4. Which methods of training and development should be company initiate? Explain giving reasons.

Answer:

1. The process of staffing that the company should follow is as follows.

i. Identify and estimate the number and the kind of personnel required for the set up.
ii. Look for suitable candidates to fill the job vacancies and persuade them to apply for the same.
iii. Choose the right candidate through a rigorous selection process.
iv. Make the selected employees comfortable and familiar with the working environment.
v. Train the employees as per the requirements of the job.
vi. Assess the performance of the employees against the predetermined standards and provide feedback.
vii. Place the employees who are doing well at higher level in the hierarchy and position.
viii. Provide suitable compensation to the employees.

2. The company should rely upon external sources of recruitment. As the company is setting up a new plant in a new region, candidates from the local area would be more suitable as they would be familiar with the working conditions, problems faced, etc. in the local region. This would be in favour of the organisation.

3. The following selection process would be used.

i. As a first step screen the candidates and eliminate those who do not fulfil the basic criteria and qualifications as per the job requirements.
ii. Judge the candidate on different criteria such as aptitude test, intelligence test and personality test.
iii. Conduct a personal interview involving a direct conversation between the manager and the candidate which would further help in judging the overall suitability of the employee according to the job requirement.
iv. Conduct a background check of the candidate taking references from person known to the candidate, previous employers, etc.
v. If the candidate is found suitable provide a job offer confirming that he/she has been selected.
vi. Finally provide an employment contract mentioning the terms and conditions of the employment.

4. In order to have a highly trained and motivated work force, the company must initiate the following methods of training and development.

i. Apprenticeship Programmes: The trainees are put under master workers who guide them in acquiring the level of skills required for their jobs. These trainees or apprentices work under the trainers for a pre-defined amount of time. In the initial period, they observe the master worker performing a task and then gradually do the task themselves under the supervision of the master worker.

ii. Coaching:  In this method, the trainees are put under the guidance of a coach or a counsellor, and they work towards achieving the goals that are set on the basis of a mutual understanding. Typically, coaching aims at training the employee such that he or she can reach a higher position at work.

iii. Internship training: Educational institutions enter into collaborations with business corporations, and some students are selected to work as interns with the corporations for a specific period.

iv. Vestibule training: Dummy models of real working environment are created in classrooms outside the workplace. The trainees are made to work on the dummy machines and equipment, and only when they acquire adequate expertise in their use are they shifted to the actual workplace. 

Page No 176:

Question 2:

A major insurance company handled all recruiting, screening and training processes for data entry/customer service representatives. Their competitor was attracting most of the qualified, potential employees in their market. Recruiting was made even more difficult by the strong economy and the ‘job-seeker’s market.’ This resulted in the client having to choose from candidates who had the ‘soft’ skills needed for the job, but lacked the proper ‘hard’ skills and training.

Questions
1. As an HR manager what problems do you see in the company?
2. How do you think it can be resolved?

Answer:

1. The following problems are faced by the company.

i. As the competitors attracted most of the qualified candidates, there is dearth of good qualified potential employees in the company.
ii. The employees in the company lack the required hard skills, which in turn results in poor performance.

2. The following steps can be taken to resolve the problems.

i. Proper training in the required hard skills must be given to the employees.
ii. In order to attract better potential candidates the company can outsource its recruitment activities to a specialised and proficient agency.

Page No 176:

Question 3:

A Public transport corporation has hired 1000 buses for the different routes for the passengers of metropolitan city. Most of the 3000 crewmen (drivers, conductors, helpers etc.) of these buses have been found to be wanting in satisfactorily dealing with public and daily commuters. They seem to be little interested in the job and the job seem to have lost all meaning to them.

Questions

1. As manager of the public transport company what measures do you suggest to improve the working of crewman in question?

2. Is it possible to modify their behaviour by planning a suitable type of training? Suggest one.

Answer:

1. The following measures can be taken to improve the performance of the crewmen in the company.

i. Proper training must be given to the crew with regard to the required soft skills.
ii. Various financial and non-financial incentives can be given to the employees so as to help them develop interest in the job.
iii. The employees should be made aware of the importance of their job.

2. Yes, proper training can help in modifying the behaviour of the crewmen. Training should be given to them with regard to the required soft skills to deal with the commuters. The training should be such that it makes the crew more sensitive and courteous towards the commuters.



Page No 177:

Question 4:

Ms. Jayshree recently completed her Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management. A few months from now a large steel manufacturing company appointed her as its human resource manager. As of now, the company employs 800 persons and has an expansion plan in hand which may require another 200 persons for various types of additional requirements. Ms. Jayshree has been given complete charge of the company’s Human Resource Department.

Questions
1. Point out, what functions is she supposed to perform?
2. What problems do you foresee in her job?
3. What steps is she going to take to perform her job efficiently?
4. How significant is her role in the organisation?

Answer:

1. As a human resource manger the main function that she would be performing is the staffing function. She must ensure that according to the expansion plan of the organisation, positions are filled with qualified and suitable candidates and that the positions remain filled. Subsequently she must ensure that the candidates are trained properly and remain motivated. It is her role to ensure that the individual goals of the employees are in harmony with the organisational goals.

The functions of Ms. Jayshree can be summarised as follows.

i. Recruiting the qualified candidates
ii. Preparing job descriptions
iii. Preparing a compensation plans and incentive plans
iv. Training the employees as per the job requirements
v. Maintaining harmonious relations with the employees
vi. Working towards social security and welfare of the employees
vii. Defending the company in case of any law suits and legal complications

2. The following can be some of the problems that Ms. Jayshree might face.

i. Her job requires her to perform many specialised functions simultaneously.
ii. Selecting the right candidates suitable for the jobs is a rigorous process.
iii. Identifying the right source from where the candidates can be recruited is a challenge.
iv. Arranging for training the personnel in the skills required as per the job.

3. The following steps must be taken to perform the job efficiently.

i. A proper staffing plan must be formulated so as to estimate the present as well as future human resource requirements.
ii. The qualifications required for various jobs must be pre-decided.
iii. An assessment test must be developed to screen the potential candidates.
iv. The job should be advertised well so as to attract potential candidates.
v. A proper selection test and interview must be conducted.

4. Her job is very significant in the organisation. It is very important to ensure that the right and the suitable candidates are selected for the job. Wrong selection of the candidates can badly affect the performance and efficiency in the organisation. Moreover, as human behaviour is complicated it becomes all the more complex to select the right candidate as per the job requirements. The following points justify the importance of human resource management.

i. Recruiting the right and competent personnel, thereby, maintaining performance and efficiency
ii. Ensuring growth and survival in the organisation through proper planning for managers
iii. Maintaining the morale of the employees through regular assessment and incentive programmes
iv. Helps in optimum and proper utilisation of resources



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