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Board Paper of Class 12-Commerce 2019 Economics Delhi(Set 1) - Solutions

General Instructions :

(i) All questions in both the sections are compulsory.

(ii) Marks for questions are indicated against each question.

(iii) Question Nos. 1 - 4 and 13 - 16 are very short-answer questions carrying 1 mark each. They are required to be answered in one sentence each.

(iv) Question Nos. 5 - 6 and 17 - 18 are short-answer questions carrying 3 marks each. Answers to them should normally not exceed 60 words each.

(v) Question Nos. 7 - 9 and 19 - 21 are also short-answer questions carrying 4 marks each. Answers to them should normally not exceed 70 words each.

(vi) Question Nos. 10 - 12 and 22 - 24 are long-answer questions carrying 6 marks each. Answers to them should normally not exceed 100 words each.

(vii) Answers should be brief and to the point and the above word limits should be adhered to as far as possible.
  • Question 1
    In the given figure, the movement on the production possibility curve from point A to point B shows ________. (Choose the correct alternative)

    (a) Growth of all the resources in the economy.
    (b) Underutilisation of resources.
    (c) Production of more units of Good X and less units of Good Y.
    (d) Production of more units of Good Y and less units of Good X. VIEW SOLUTION
  • Question 2
    Average fixed cost curve ____. (Choose the correct alternative)
    (a) is a straight line parallel to X-axis.
    (b) is straight line parallel to Y-axis.
    (c) falls, as more units are produced
    (d) rises, as more units are produced


    Which of the following formula is correct for calculating marginal cost?
    (Choose the correct alternative)
    (a) MCN = TFCn – TFCN – 1
    (b) MCN = ACN – ACN – 1
    (c) MCN = AVCN – AVCn – 1
    (d) MCN = TCn – TCN – 1 VIEW SOLUTION
  • Question 3

    The average product curve in the input-output plane, will be __________. (Choose the correct alternative)

    (a) an 'S' shaped curve
    (b) an inverse 'S' shaped curve
    (c) a 'U' shaped curve
    (d) an inverse 'U' shaped curve VIEW SOLUTION
  • Question 4

    If the market supply of a commodity X changes due to improvement in technology, the market supply curve will ________. (Fill up the blank)


    If the market supply of a commodity X changes due to rise in price of a factor input, the market supply curve will ________. (Fill up the blank)

  • Question 5

    Identify and discuss the nature of the following newspaper reports in terms of positive or normative economic analysis :
    (i) "India jumped 23 points in the World Bank's ease of doing business index to 77th place, highest in 2 years." – The Economic Times
    (ii) "Government should further liberalise the business rules." – The Economic Times

  • Question 6
    Distinguish between substitute goods and complementary goods, with examples.


    Distinguish between normal goods and inferior goods, with examples
  • Question 7
    Discuss briefly, using a hypothetical schedule, the relation between marginal utility and total utility


    Discuss briefly, using a hypothetical schedule the concept of diminishing marginal rate of substitution.
  • Question 8

    Complete the following cost schedule :

    Quantity (in Units) 0 1 2 3 4
    Total cost (in ) 200 ....... ....... ....... .......
    Total variable cost (in ) 0 ....... 180 ....... .......
    Average variable cost (in ) 100 ....... 80 .......
  • Question 9

    In the given diagram, OP is the market determined price and OP1 is the price fixed by the government.

    (a) Identify if the diagram represents, price ceiling or price flooring.

    (b) Discuss the likely behaviour of the market in the given condition.


    Suppose the demand and supply equations of a commodity X in a perfectly competitive market are given by :

    Qd = 1700 – 2P

    Qs = 1300 + 3P

    Calculate the value of equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity of the commodity X.

  • Question 10

    (a) Define price elasticity of demand.

    (b) If the price of a commodity rises by 40% and its quantity demanded falls from150 units to 120 units, calculate coefficient of price elasticity of demand for the commodity.

  • Question 11
    What is meant by "diminishing returns to a factor" ? Discuss any two reasons for the operation of diminishing returns to a factor. VIEW SOLUTION
  • Question 12
    Elaborate three main features of monopoly form of market.


    Distinguish between perfect competition and monopolistic competition on the basis of following :

    (a) Number of sellers
    (b) Nature of product
    (c) Selling cost
  • Question 13
    Give any two examples of flow concept. VIEW SOLUTION
  • Question 15

    Suppose in a hypothetical economy, the income rises from  5,000 crores to 6,000 crores. As a result, the consumption expenditure rises from 4,000 crores to 4,600 crores. Marginal propensity to consume in such a case would be __________. (Choose the correct alternative)
    (a) 0.8
    (b) 0.4
    (c) 0.2
    (d) 0.6

  • Question 16
    What is meant by primary deficit  ?

    What is meant by fiscal deficit ?
  • Question 17
    Define the problem of double counting in the computation of national income. State any two approaches to correct the problem of double counting.


    "Gross Domestic Product (GDP) does not give us a clear indication of economic welfare of a country. "Defend or refute the given statement with valid reason
  • Question 18
    If in an economy :
    Change in initial Investments (∆I) = ₹ 500 crores
    Marginal Propensity to Save (MPS) = 0.2
    Find the values of the following:
    (a) Investment multiplier (k),
    (b) Change in final income (∆Y)
  • Question 19
    How are capital receipts different from revenue receipts? Discuss briefly. VIEW SOLUTION
  • Question 20
    State and discuss the components of Aggregate Demand in a two sector economy.


    In the given figure, what does the gap 'KT' represent? State any two fiscal measures to correct the situation.
  • Question 21
    Discuss the working of the adjustment mechanism in the following situations:

    (a) Aggregate demand is greater than Aggregate supply.

    (b) Ex Ante Investments are lesser than Ex Ante Savings. VIEW SOLUTION
  • Question 22

    (a) Define "Trade surplus". How is it different from "Current account surplus" ?
    (b) "Indian Rupee (₹) plunged to all time low of ₹ 74.48 against the US Dollar ($)".

    −The Economic Times

    In the light of the above report, discuss the impact of the situation on Indian Imports.

  • Question 23
    (a) State any two components of M1 measure of money supply.
    (b) Elaborate any two instruments of Credit Control, as exercised by the Reserve Bank of India.


    Define Credit Multiplier. What role does it play in determining the credit creation power of the banking system ? Use a numerical illustration to explain. VIEW SOLUTION
  • Question 24
    Given the following data, find the missing value of 'Government Final Consumption Expenditure' and 'Mixed Income of Self Employed'.
    S.No. Particulars Amount
    (In ₹ crores)
    (i) National Income 71,000
    (ii) Gross Domestic Capital  Formation 10,000
    (iii) Government Final Consumption Expenditure ?
    (iv) Mixed Income of Self Employed ?
    (v) Net Factor Income from Abroad 1,000
    (vi) Net Indirect Taxes 2,000
    (vii) Profits 1,200
    (viii) Wages & Salaries 15,000
    (ix) Net Exports 5,000
    (x) Private Final Consumption Expenditure 40,000
    (xi) Consumption of Fixed Capital 3,000
    (xii) Operating Surplus 30,000
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