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Board Paper of Class 12-Commerce 2011 Economics (SET 2) - Solutions

General Instructions:
(i) All questions in both the sections are compulsory.
(ii) Marks for questions are indicated against each.
(iii) Questions Nos. 1-5 and 17-21 are very short-answer questions carrying 1 mark each. They are required to be answered in one sentence each
(iv) Questions Nos. 6-10 and 22-26 are short-answer questions carrying 3 marks each. Answers to them should normally not exceed 60 words each.
(v) Questions Nos. 11-13 and 27-29 are also short-answer questions carrying 4 marks each. Answers to them should normally not exceed 70 words each.
(vi) Questions Nos. 14-16 and 30-32 are long-answer questions carrying 6 marks each. Answers to them should normally not exceed 100 words each.
(vii) Answers should be brief and to the point and the above word limits should be adhered to as far as possible.
  • Question 2

    When is a firm called ‘price-taker’?

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  • Question 4

    What is meant by ‘increase’ in supply?

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  • Question 6

    Why is a production possibilities curve concave? Explain.

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  • Question 7

    A consumer buys 10 units of a good at a price of Rs. 6 per unit. Price elasticity of demand is (−) 1. At what price will be buy 12 units? Use expenditure approach of price elasticity of demand to answer this question.

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  • Question 8

    Giving examples, explain the meaning of cost in economics.

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  • Question 9

    Draw average revenue and marginal revenue curves in a single diagram of a firm which can sell more units of a good only by lowering the price of that good. Explain.

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  • Question 10

    Explain the implication of ‘freedom of entry and exit to the firms’ under perfect competition.

    OR

    Explain the implication of ‘perfect knowledge about market’ under perfect competition.

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  • Question 11

    Explain the conditions determining how many units of a good the consumer will buy at a given price.

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  • Question 12

    Explain how the demand for a good is affected by the prices of its related goods. Give examples.

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  • Question 13

    Define ‘Market-supply’. What is the effect on the supply of a good when Government imposes a tax on the production of that good? Explain.

    OR

    What is a supply schedule? What is the effect on the supply of a good when Government gives a subsidy on the production of that good? Explain.

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  • Question 14

    What is meant by producer’s equilibrium? Explain the conditions of producer’s equilibrium through the ‘total revenue and total cost’ approach. Use diagram.

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  • Question 15

    Explain the concept of Marginal Rate of Substitution (MRS) by giving an example. What happens to MRS when consumer moves downwards along the indifference curve? Give reasons for your answer.

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  • Question 16

    Market for a good is in equilibrium. There is an ‘increase’ in demand for this good. Explain the chain of effects of this change. Use diagram.

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  • Question 17

    What is nominal gross domestic product?

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  • Question 22

    State the components of capital account of balance of payments.

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  • Question 23

    Explain how ‘distribution of gross domestic product’ is a limitation in taking gross domestic product as an index of welfare.

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  • Question 24

    If National Income is Rs. 50 crore and Saving Rs 5 crore, find out average propensity to consume. When income rises to Rs 60 crore and saving to Rs 9 crore, what will be the average propensity to consume and the marginal propensity to save?

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  • Question 25

    Explain the relationship between investment multiplier and marginal propensity to consume.

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  • Question 26

    When price of a foreign currency rises, its demand falls. Explain why.

    OR

    When price of a foreign currency rises, its supply also rises. Explain why.

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  • Question 27

    Explain the ‘allocation of resources’ objective of Government budget.

    OR

    Explain the ‘redistribution of income’ objective of Government budget.

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  • Question 28

    From the following data about a Government budget, find out (a) Revenue deficit, (b) Fiscal deficit and (c) Primary deficit:

    S. No.

    Items

    (Rs Arab)

    (i)

    Capital receipts net of borrowings

    95

    (ii)

    Revenue expenditure

    100

    (iii)

    Interest payments

    10

    (iv)

    Revenue receipts

    80

    (v)

    Capital expenditure

    110

     

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  • Question 29

    Giving reasons classify the following into intermediate products and final products:

    (i) Computers installed in an office.

    (ii) Mobile sets purchased by a mobile dealer.

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  • Question 30

    Explain the role of the following in correcting ‘deficient demand’ in an economy:

    (i) Open market operations.

    (ii) Bank rate.

    OR

    Explain the role of the following in correcting ‘excess demand’ in an economy:

    (i) Bank rate

    (ii) Open market operations

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  • Question 31

    Explain the process of money creation by the commercial banks with the help of a numerical example.

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  • Question 32

    Find the gross National Product at market price and Net National Disposable Income from the following:

    S. No.

    Items

    (Rs Arab)

    (i)

    Opening stock

    50

    (ii)

    Private final consumption expenditure

    1000

    (iii)

    Net  current transfers to abroad

    5

    (iv)

    Closing stock

    40

    (v)

    Net factor income to abroad

    (–) 10

    (vi)

    Government final consumption expenditure

    300

    (vii)

    Consumption of fixed capital

    30

    (viii)

    Net imports

    20

    (ix)

    Net domestic fixed capital formation

    150

     

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