Matrices

**Matrices and their Related Terminology**

- A
**matrix**is an ordered rectangular array of numbers and functions. The numbers or functions in a matrix are called the elements of the matrix.

For example, if the marks obtained by Smita in English, Maths and Science are 84, 93, and 89 respectively and the marks scored by Gopal are 81, 90, and 92 respectively, then this can be represented in the form of matrix as or as .

Here, in the first matrix, the vertical lines of elements represent the marks obtained by Smita and Gopal respectively. In the second matrix, the horizontal lines of elements represent the marks obtained by Smita and Gopal.

- The matrices are usually denoted by capital letters. The horizontal line of elements is known as the row of matrix and the vertical line of elements is known as the column of matrix.

- A matrix with
*m*rows and*n*columns is known as the matrix of order*m*×*n*or an*m*×*n*matrix.

For example: is a 3 × 2 matrix and is a 2 × 3 matrix.

- In general, an
*m*×*n*matrix represents the matrix

It can also be represented as.

This means that the *i*^{th} row has elements *a*_{i1}, *a*_{i2} … *a*_{ij} … *a*_{in} and the *j*^{th} column has elements *a*_{1j}, *a*_{2j} … *a*_{ij} … *a*_{mj}.

- An
*m*×*n*matrix has*mn*number of elements.

To understand the basic concepts related to matrices, let us have a look at the following video.

**Types of Matrices**

- A matrix is said to be a
**column****matrix**if it has only one column.

For example: is a column matrix.

- A matrix is said to be a
**row****matrix**if it ...

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