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Human Reproduction

Structure and function of male reproductive system

Human beings reproduce sexually and are viviparous.

In humans, the reproductive phase starts after puberty. It involves:

  • Gametogenesis
  • Insemination
  • Fertilisation
  • Implantation
  • Gestation
  • Parturition

The Male Reproductive System

  • It is located in the pelvic region.

  • It consists of:

    • A pair of testes

    • Accessory glands and ducts

    • External genitalia

Testes

  • Situated within the scrotum, which protects the testes and also helps in maintaining the temperature.

  • Each testis is 4 to 5 cm in length, and 2 to 3 cm in width, and has about 250 compartments called testicular lobules.

  • Testicular lobules have seminiferous tubules which are the sites of sperm formation.

  • Seminiferous tubules are lined by two types of cells:

    • Male germ cells − They undergo meiosis to form sperms.

    • Sertoli cells − They provide nourishment to the germ cells.

  • Region outside the seminiferous tubules is called the interstitial space, which contains Leydig cells (interstitial cells). The Leydig cells produce androgens.
  • Apart from producing sperms, testes also produce a hormone called testosterone. This hormone is responsible for the development of male sex organs like penis and testes. It also brings about secondary sex characteristics in boys during puberty.


Sperm

A sperm consists of four main regions:
  • Head: It contains a nucleus, that carries the genetic material. It also contains a large secre…

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