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Page No 115:

Question 1:

As a child grows, its skeleton becomes hard mainly because bones begin to store
(a) cartilage.
(b) minerals.
(c) proteins.
(d) carbohydrates.

Answer:

(b) minerals
Bones are made up of minerals like calcium.

Page No 115:

Question 2:

The spinal cord lies inside the
(a) skull.
(b) pelvic bones.
(c) vertebrae.
(d) shoulder bones.

Answer:

(d) Vertebrae
The spinal cord lies in the vertebral column.

Page No 115:

Question 3:

A ball and socket joint is different from other joints because only a ball and socket joint
(a) allows movement in one direction.
(b) does not allow movement.
(c) allows movement in all directions.
(d) allows only a little movement.

Answer:

(c) allows movement in all directions.
Ball and socket joints, like in the shoulder, allows movement in all directions.



Page No 116:

Question 4:

Which of the following is not a hinge joint?
(a) finger
(b) elbow
(c) knee
(d) shoulder

Answer:

(d) shoulder
Shoulder is a ball and socket joint.

Page No 116:

Question 5:

Which of the following is an example of a tissue?
(a) heart
(b) blood
(c) lung
(d) eye

Answer:

(b) blood
Blood is a tissue, whereas heart, lung and eye are organs.

Page No 116:

Question 6:

In which of these pairs of joints are both slightly movable?
(a) ankle and rib
(b) rib and backbone
(c) backbone and shoulder
(d) rib and jaw

Answer:

(b) rib and backbone
The rib joints move while breathing and backbone moves while bending. However, these movements are restricted and can only cause slight movements of rib and backbone.

Page No 116:

Question 7:

Which of these is not a function of the skeletal system?
(a) production of blood cells
(b) providing shape and support to the body
(c) protection of the soft organs of the body
(d) supporting the digestive system

Answer:

(d) supporting the digestive system
The digestive system is not supported by the skeletal system.

Page No 116:

Question 8:

Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?
(a) skull-brain
(b) glands-hormone
(c) spinal cord-vertebrae
(d) streamlined-snail

Answer:

(d) streamlined-snail
Streamlined is correctly paired with fish. The streamlined body of fish helps it to swim.

Page No 116:

Question 9:

On what basis have the following organs been classified?

Group I Group II
stomach eye
heart ears
liver arms
kidneys legs
(a) organs of diegestive system and organs of nervous system
(b) internal and external organs
(c) organs producing hormones and organs that do not produce hormones
(d) organs that help in digestion and organs that help in movement

Answer:

(b) internal and external organs
Group I contains internal organs and group II has external organs.

Page No 116:

Question 10:

Which type of movable joint is the arrow pointing to in this X-Ray?
(a) ball and socket joint
(b) slightly movable
(c) pivot joint
(d) hinge joint
Figure

Answer:

(a) ball and socket joint
Shoulder joint is an example of ball and socket joint.

Page No 116:

Question 11:

Define an organ. Name any six organs of the human body.

Answer:

Organ is a group of different tissues working together to perform a particular function.
Six organs of the human body are lungs, heart, brain, kidney, liver and stomach.

Page No 116:

Question 12:

Explain the following terms: ball and socket joints, cartilage, ligament, locomotion.

Answer:

Ball and socket joint: It is a joint in which the ball-like end of one bone fits in the cavity of another bone. For example, shoulder joint.

Cartilage: The shock-absorbing cushion present at every joint is termed as cartilage.

Ligament: The tough elastic fibre that joins two bones is called ligament. It allows bones to move in different directions.

Locomotion: Locomotion is the movement of an organism from one place to another.

Page No 116:

Question 13:

Differentiate between the following pairs.
(a) tendon and ligament
(b) locomotion in an earthworm and a snake
(c) organ and organ system
(d) voluntary and involuntary muscles

Answer:

(a)

Tendon Ligament
Fibre that attaches muscles to bones is called tendon. Tough elastic fibre by which bones are joined is called ligament.

(b)
Locomotion in earthworm Locomotion in snake
Earthworms move by contraction and expansion of muscles. The movement of snakes is called slithering.
They have bristle-like projections beneath their body for a good grip. They do not have any projections or limbs.

(c)
Organ Organ system
Organ is made up of different types of tissues that work together for a particular function, e.g., heart Organ system is a group of organs that work together like a circulatory system.
e.g., circulatory system

(d)
Voluntary muscles  Involuntary muscles
Voluntary muscles are those whose movement can be controlled by us such as that of arms and legs. Involuntary muscles are those whose movements are not controlled by us such as that of heart.

Page No 116:

Question 14:

Name the systems to which the following organs belong: stomach, kidney, tongue, blood vessels, wind pipe.

Answer:

Stomach: Digestive system
Kidney: Excretory system
Tongue: Digestive system
Blood vessels: Circulatory system
Wind pipe: Respiratory system

Page No 116:

Question 15:

Give one function of each of the following.
(a) respiratory system
(b) circulatory system
(c) cartilage
(d) skeletal system
(e) hinge joints

Answer:

(a) Respiratory system: It provides the body with oxygen.

(b) Circulatory system: It supplies oxygen-rich blood to the body.

(c) Cartilage: It acts as a shock-absorbing cushion between the joints.

(d) Skeletal system: It gives structure and support to the body.

(e) Hinge joints: These joints allow movement only in one direction.



Page No 117:

Question 16:

Copy the table in your notebook and complete it.

 Organ
 System
Any Two
Organs
Function
 1. _______  __________ ,
 __________
 
 converts complex
 food into simple,
 soluble form
 2. _______  nose, lungs  ______________________
 3. circulatory
    system
 ___________  ______________________
4. _______  ___________  central control
 system of the body
 that sends and receives
 information from
 the environment

Answer:

 Organ
 System
Any Two
Organs
Function
 1. digestive system stomach,
small intestine

 
 converts complex
 food into simple,
 soluble form
 2. respiratory system  nose, lungs  exchange of gases, release of energy from food
 3. circulatory
    system
 heart, blood vessels  circulation of blood for supplying nutrients to cells.
4. nervous system  brain, spinal cord  central control
 system of the body
 that sends and receives
 information from
 the environment

Page No 117:

Question 17:

Find the odd one out in each of the following groups giving reasons.
(a) blood, bone, kidney, cartilage
(b) liver, heart, stomach, intestine
(c) skull, fingers, ureter, backbone
(d) spine, knee, shoulder, fingers

Answer:

(a) kidney
Blood, bone and cartilage are connective tissues, whereas kidney is not.
(b) heart
Liver, stomach and intestine are parts of digestive system, whereas heart is a part of circulatory system.
(c) ureter
Skull, fingers and backbone are parts of skeletal system, whereas ureter is a part of excretory system.
(d) spine
Knee, shoulder and fingers are parts of skeletal system, whereas spine is a part of nervous system.

Page No 117:

Question 18:

Explain with examples the difference between a fixed joint, a partially movable joint, and a movable joint.

Answer:

Fixed joint Partially movable joint Movable joint
No movement can take place between the joints Only slight degree of movement can take place between the joints Movements in many directions can take place between the joints
Example: Joint of skull Example: Joint of ribs Examples: Joints of fingers, arms

Page No 117:

Question 19:

Complete the following sentences correctly using key words from the chapter.
(a) The part of a skeleton where two or more bones meet is a ____________.
(b) ____________ connects bones to muscles.
(c) A ___________ is a group of two or more tissues that work together to perform a specific function.
(d) An organ system consists of different types of ______________.
(e) The muscles over which you have no control are _____________.
(f) Tough bands of fibres holding the bones together are known as ___________.
(g) The respiratory system excretes _____________.
(h) The spinal cord is a part of the _____________ system.

Answer:

(a) The part of a skeleton where two or more bones meet is a joint.
(b) Tendons connects bones to muscles.
(c) A organ is a group of two or more tissues that work together to perform a specific function.
(d) An organ system consists of different types of organs.
(e) The muscles over which you have no control are involuntary.
(f) Tough bands of fibres holding the bones together are known as ligament.
(g) The respiratory system excretes carbon dioxide.
(h) The spinal cord is a part of the nervous system.

Page No 117:

Question 20:

What is the relationship between a cell, a tissue, an organ and an organ system?

Answer:

Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of a multicellular organism. Different groups of cells perform different functions.
Tissue is a group of similar cells performing a specific function. Different tissues that work together form an organ. Different organs that work together constitute an organ system.
Thus, cell, tissue, organ and organ system are inter-related and represent the hierarchy of organisation in the body.

Page No 117:

Question 21:

What is the pancreas? Where is it found? What is its significance in the human body?

Answer:

Pancreas is one of the associated organs of the digestive system. It is located in the abdominal cavity near the stomach. It produces enzymes that aid in digestion of food in the human body.

Page No 117:

Question 22:

Mark each statement as true or false.
(a) Blood is made in the bones.
(b) All waste products of the body are excreted through the excretory system.
(c) All organs have more than one function.
(d) An organ has only one type of tissue.
(e) An organ system may be made up of tissues and organs.
(f) Different tissues perform different functions in the organs.
(g) A tissue always performs the same function.

Answer:

(a) False
Blood is made in the bone marrow.

(b) False
Carbon dioxide is a waste product that is excreted by the respiratory system.

(c) False
Only some organs like liver has more than one function.

(d) False. An organ is made up of different kinds of tissues.

(e) True

(f) False
Different tissues performing different functions work together to form an organ.

(g) True

Page No 117:

Question 23:

Name:
(a) two organs protected by the skeletal system.
(b) a gas supplied by the lungs to the body.
(c) three things transported by the blood.
(d) the system that produces hormones.
(e) the system that gets rid of wastes.
(f) the system which controls all the functions of the body
(g) the movement of a snake

Answer:

(a) Two organs protected by the skeletal system are brain and heart.
(b) Oxygen is a gas supplied by the lungs to the body.
(c) Gases, nutrients and hormones are three things transported by the blood.
(d) Endocrine system produces hormones.
(e) Excretory system gets rid of wastes.
(f) Nervous system controls all the functions of the body.
(g) The movement of a snake is slithering.



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