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Page No 163:

Question 1:

When Abhishek looked at a lighted torch through an object he could see a faint glow, but not the torch. The object is
(a) transparent.
(b) opaque.
(c) translucent.
(d) luminous.

Answer:

(c) translucent

The object does not allow to see the torch but only a faint light passed through it. This shows that this object is allowing to pass light through it only partially. Therefore, this object is translucent.

Page No 163:

Question 2:

Anjali placed a metre stick in the playground at 8.00 am in the morning. How will the shadow of the stick at noon look in comparison to the one in the morning?
(a) There will be no shadow.
(b) The shadow will be longer and on the opposite side of the stick.
(c) The shadow will be shorter and on the same side as the sun.
(d) The shadow will be shorter and on the opposite side of the sun.

Answer:

(d) The shadow will be shorter and on the opposite side of the sun.
Shadow always forms on the opposite side of the source of light. Shadow is shortest at noon.

Page No 163:

Question 3:

The image formed by a pinhole camera is inverted because
(a) light travels in straight lines.
(b) light rays become laterally inverted as they pass through a pinhole camera.
(c) light rays pass through the pinhole.
(d) light rays get reflected.

Answer:

(b) light rays become laterally inverted as they pass through a pinhole camera.

On entering the pinhole, the light ray from the tip of the source reaches the base point on the screen of the camera, whereas the light ray from the base of the source reaches the top â€‹point on the screen of the camera. In this way, an inverted image is formed on the screen of the camera.

Page No 163:

Question 4:

Equal sized cut-outs of letters of the word AIR were placed one behind the other between a torch and a screen.
The shadow will look like-
(a) A I R
(b) A I R
(c) A I R
(d) A I R
Figure

Answer:

(a) AIR
The shadow will look like AIR.

Page No 163:

Question 5:

Josh is observing his image in a plane mirror. The distance between the mirror and the image is 4 m. If his image moves 1 m towards the mirror, then what will be the distance between Josh and his image?
(a) 3 m
(b) 5 m
(c) 6 m
(d) 8 m

Answer:

(c) 6 m
The object distance is equal to the image distance in case of a plane mirror. Therefore, when Josh moved one metre towards the mirror, the image distance from the mirror will also reduce by one metre.
Therefore, the distance between Josh and his image =  3 + 3
                                                                           = 6 m

Page No 163:

Question 6:

Shruti stood in front of a mirror and looked at her image. Which of the following statements are correct?
A. The image is bigger than her.
B. The image is smaller than her.
C. The image is the same size as Shruti.
D. When she raised her left hand, the image raised its left hand.
E. When she raised her right hand, the image raised its left hand.
F. She saw her image upside down.
G. She walked two steps forward and the image took two steps backwards.

(a) B, E and G are correct.
(b) C and E are correct.
(c) C, E and F are correct.
(d) B, E and F are correct.

Answer:

(b) C and E are correct.
The image formed in the mirror is of the same size as Shruti. Also, image formed in a plane mirror is laterally inverted. This means that when Shruti raised her right hand, the image raised her left hand.

Page No 163:

Question 7:

Which of the following facts explain how shadows are formed?
A. Light travels in straight lines.
B. Opaque bodies do not allow light to pass through them.
C. Reflection occurs at smooth surfaces like mirrors.
D. Lateral inversion happens.

(a) both A and B
(b) both A and D
(c) both B and C
(d) only A

Answer:

(a) both A and B
Shadow is formed because light travels in a straight line and opaque bodies do not allow light to pass through them.



Page No 164:

Question 8:

When lateral inversion occurs, _____________ .
(a) top and bottom exchange places
(b) the image is upside down
(c) the image expands sideways
(d) left becomes right and right becomes left

Answer:

(d) left becomes right and right becomes left.
During lateral inversion, the image and the object change sides. Left becomes right and right becomes left.

Page No 164:

Question 9:

Which of the following is not formed in a pinhole camera?
(a) an upright image
(b) an image which can be captured on a screen
(c) an image whose size can be changed
(d) an inverted image

Answer:

(a) an upright image
In a pinhole camera, an inverted image is formed and not an upright image.

Page No 164:

Question 10:

Rahul entered a room and found the shadow of the ceiling fan, hung in the centre of the ceiling, was on the wall just opposite to the door? What do you think is the correct position of the bulb?
(a) on the wall to the left of the door
(b) on the wall to the right of the door
(c) on the wall facing the door
(d) on the same wall as the door and above it

Answer:

(d) on the same wall as the door and above it

The shadow of ceiling fan is formed on the wall opposite to the door because the bulb is located on the same wall as the door and above it.

Page No 164:

Question 11:

Replace the following phrases with one or two words.
(a) an object that does not allow any light to pass through it
(b) a dark region formed when rays of light are blocked by an opaque object
(c) the bouncing back of rays of light when they fall on a surface
(d) when right and left interchange places
(e) a non-luminous object that reflects light from the sun

Answer:

(a) Opaque object does not allow any light to pass through it.

(b) Shadow is a dark region formed when rays of light are blocked by an opaque object.

(c) Reflection is the bouncing back of rays of light when they fall on a surface.

(d) Lateral inversion occurs when right and left interchange places.

(e) Moon is a non-luminous object that reflects light from the sun.

Page No 164:

Question 12:

What is the difference between luminous and non-luminous objects? Give two examples of each.

Answer:

 

Luminous objects Non-luminous objects
Luminous objects emit their own light. Non-luminous objects do not emit their own light. They are visible because of the reflection of light falling on them.
Examples: Sun, stars etc. Examples: Moon, earth etc.

Page No 164:

Question 13:

Figure

(a) How does the above experiment show that light travels in a straight line?
(b) Think and write about two everyday situations that tell you that light travels in a straight line.

Answer:

(a) In this experiment, flame is seen only when the holes are exactly in a straight line. If any of the holes fail to come in line with the others, flame cannot be seen. This proves that light travels in a straight line.

(b) Shadows are formed because light travels in a straight line. In a pinhole camera, the image is formed because light travels in a straight line.

Page No 164:

Question 14:

Draw a diagram of a pinhole camera showing the rays of light passing between the object (a candle) and its image.

Answer:




 Diagram of a pinhole camera showing the image

Page No 164:

Question 15:

Why is the writing on the front of an ambulance back to front as shown in the picture?
Figure

Answer:

When we look at a mirror, we see a laterally inverted image. If we look at a writing in a mirror, it appears from back to front. Therefore, the word 'AMBULANCE' is written back to front on an ambulance to allow car drivers to see the word correctly on their rare view mirrors. On the mirrors, it will look the right way round.

Page No 164:

Question 16:

State whether the following statements are true or false. Rewrite the false statements correctly.
(a) We see planets because they reflect light from the sun.
(b) We see a book because it reflects the light that falls on its surface.
(c) The image formed in a pinhole camera is always inverted.
(d) The image formed in a pinhole camera is always the same size as the object.
(e) The image formed in a plane mirror is upside down.
(f) A plane mirror is opaque.
(g) A shadow is formed on the same side of the object as the source of light.

Answer:

(a) True.

(b) True.

(c) True.

(d) False. The size of the image formed in a pinhole camera is affected by the distance between the object and the pinhole.

(e) False. The image formed in a plane mirror is upright.

(f) True.

(g) False. Shadow of an object is formed on the opposite side of the source of light.



Page No 165:

Question 17:

State three facts about the image formed due to reflection in a plane mirror.

Answer:

Following are the facts about the image formed due to reflection in a plane mirror:
(a) The image formed in a plane mirror is of the same size as the object.
(b) The image formed in the mirror is as distant from the mirror as the object is in front of it.
(c) The image is laterally inverted. This means that the image and the object change side. Left becomes right and right becomes left when seen in a mirror.

Page No 165:

Question 18:

Differentiate between a reflection and a shadow.

Answer:

Reflection Shadow
The process of sending back the light rays that fall on the surface of an object is called reflection of light.  When a beam of light is blocked by an opaque object, the light rays that reach the object are stopped. On the other hand, the rays that pass by the edges continue on their path. Shadow is formed in a region without light behind the object. 

Page No 165:

Question 19:

Explain, with examples, why some capital letters look the same in a mirror but others are reversed.

Answer:

It is because the image formed in the mirror is laterally inverted. So, right becomes left and left becomes right. However, some capital letters appear the same in the mirror because they have the same left and right sides. For example, A will look the same in the mirror but B will be reversed as the left and right sides of B are different from each other.

Page No 165:

Question 20:

Anand was playing with the mirror images of a clock. He looked at the clock in his room. It was showing 2:50. Draw the position of the hands on the real clock and on its mirror reflection. Write below the picture what time each picture is showing.
Figure

Answer:

Page No 165:

Question 21:

Rama was experimenting with the set up shown in figure 1 to find out about shadows and the properties of light when she obtained the shadow shown in figure 2. In figure 3, suggest what material each part of the object was made of for her to obtain the given shadow.
Figure

Answer:

Part A is made of opaque object.
Part B is made of translucent object.
Part C is made of transparent object.
Part D is made of opaque object.



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