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Page No 26:

Question 1:

What is the best reason for including fruits and leafy vegetables in a healthy diet?
(a) They are the best source of carbohydrates.
(b) They are the best source of proteins.
(c) They are rich in minerals and vitamins.
(d) They have high water content.

Answer:

(c) They are rich in minerals and vitamins
Fruits and vegetables are the best sources of vitamins and minerals.

Page No 26:

Question 2:

Calcium is an example of a
(a) mineral.
(b) carbohydrate.
(c) vitamin.
(d) protein.

Answer:

(a) mineral
Calcium is a mineral. Milk and eggs are good sources of calcium.

Page No 26:

Question 3:

Which of the following is a good source of vitamin C?
(a) milk
(b) egg yolk
(c) meat
(d) citrus fruits

Answer:

(d) citrus fruits
Citrus fruits are rich in vitamin C.

Page No 26:

Question 4:

Which of the following statements is true?
(A) It can be very harmful to eat a lot of protein-rich food as it results in obesity.
(B) By eating chapattis alone, we can fulfil the nutritional requirements of our body.
(C) Moong dal is a rich source of protein.
(D) Iodine turns blue-black when it comes in contact with bread.
(E) Roughage is the fibrous part of the food we eat.

(a) All are true.
(b) Only C, D and E are true.
(c) Only A, B and C are true.
(d) Only D and E are true.

Answer:

(b) Only C, D and E are true.
Statements C, D and E are true. Statement A is false, as obesity results due to eating excessive amount of food that     contains a lot of fat. Statement B is false because chapattis alone are not sufficient to fulfil the nutritional     requirements of our body.



Page No 27:

Question 5:

Anurag wanted to test for the presence of starch in different food items. He had four different chemicals. Which of the following should he use for his test?
(a) iodine
(b) an acid
(c) copper sulphate
(d) potassium hydroxide

Answer:

(a) iodine
Anurag should use iodine, as it changes its colour from brown to blue-black when there is any starch present in food.

Page No 27:

Question 6:

The following foods were tested for starch using iodine. The results are shown below:

Food stuff Colour
rice blue-black
cucumber no colour change
onion no colour change
dal blue-black
Which of the following foods contains starch?
(i) rice + dal
(ii) rice + cucumber
(iii) only rice
(iv) dal + onion

(a) only i
(b) i, ii, iii, and iv
(c) i, ii, and iii
(d) i, iii and iv

Answer:

(a) only i
When iodine's colour turns blue-black, it indicates the presence of starch in food. Here, rice and dal give positive test for starch.

Page No 27:

Question 7:

Unscramble and define the following terms.
(a) tunlraimtnoi
(b) bdaalnce ited
(c) iainmtv
(d) emaiaan

Answer:

 

  1. Malnutrition: It is a deficiency of nutrients which occurs due to an insufficient or unbalanced diet, taken over a long period of time.
  2. Balanced diet: A balanced diet refers to a diet which contains proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fats, minerals and water in the right proportions. Every individual requires to maintain a balanced diet in order to stay strong and healthy.
  3. Vitamin: Vitamins are substances that the body requires in small quantities and are essential for carrying out its normal functions.
  4. Anaemia: It is a type of deficiency disease which occurs due to the deficiency of iron.

Page No 27:

Question 8:

Match the terms in column I with corresponding terms in column II.

Column I Column II
(a) fats (i) body building
(b) vitamin C (ii) helps avoid constipation
(c) carbohydrates (iii) malnutrition
(d) vitamin A (iv) double energy
(e) protein (v) getting rid of wastes
(f) vitamin D (vi) healthy gums
(g) roughage (vii) avoids anaemia
(h) vitamin B (viii) good bones
(i) iron (ix) good eyesight
(j) water (x) healthy muscles and nerves
  (xi) provide energy

Answer:

                   

 Column I                  Column II
a. fats  iv. double energy
b. vitamin C  vi. healthy gums
c.carbohydrates    xi. provide energy
d.vitamin A ix. good eyesight
e.protein    i. body building
f.vitamin D  viii. good bones
g.roughage     ii. helps avoid constipation
h.vitamin B    x. healthy muscles and nerves
i.iron   vii. avoids anaemia
j.water         v. getting rid of wastes

                 
                            
                                
                         
                         
                         
                                  
                             

Page No 27:

Question 9:

Name the major components of food. What is a balanced diet?

Answer:

The major components of food are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, roughage and water.
A balanced diet refers to the diet which contains proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fats, minerals and water in the right proportions. It is necessary for an individuals to consume a balanced diet in order to stay strong and healthy.

Page No 27:

Question 10:

What is the importance of water in our food?

Answer:

Our body is made up of 70 to 80 per cent water. Water needs to be a part of our daily food intake as it helps to flush out wastes and enables various chemical reactions to take place inside our body. Deficiency of water may lead to dehydration which, in extreme cases, might be lethal.

Page No 27:

Question 11:

Mark the given statements true or false. Rewrite those which are incorrect, with the required corrections.
(a) Proteins are energy-giving foods.
(b) Amit eats moong dal with salt and lime juice. This gives him carbohydrates and vitamin A.
(c) Oranges and carrots are rich sources of vitamin C.
(d) Vitamin D is recommended when you have difficulty in studying at night by dim light.
(e) Absence of one or more nutrients over a long period of time results in malnutrition.

Answer:

 
(a) False. Proteins are body-building foods.
(b) False. Amit eats moong dal with salt and lime juice. It gives him proteins and vitamin C.
(c) False. Orange, not carrot, is a rich source of vitamin C; carrots are rich in vitamin A.
(d) False. Vitamin A is recommended when you have difficulty in studying at night in dim light. Vitamin D is given when bones are weak.
(e) True.

Page No 27:

Question 12:

Pick the odd one out from the following groups, giving reasons for your answer.
(a) butter, oil, dal, ghee
(b) pellagra, beriberi, rickets, anaemia
(c) spinach, rice, carrot, cucumber
(d) rice, wheat, sugar, milk

Answer:

  1. Dal, because it is a protein-rich food. All others are rich in fats.
  2. Anaemia, because it occurs due to deficiency of a mineral, i.e., iron. All other mentioned diseases occur due to vitamin deficiency.
  3. Rice, as it is a cereal, whereas the other three are vegetables.
  4. Milk, as milk is the only animal product mentioned.

Page No 27:

Question 13:

Why is it important to include each of the following items in your diet: dal, green leafy vegetables, fresh citrus fruit, rice or bread or chapattis?

Answer:

Dal contains proteins, which is required for body growth and its repair. Green leafy vegetables are rich in iron, the absence of which causes anaemia. Fresh citrus fruits provide vitamin C to our body. Vitamin C is essential to keep blood vessels, teeth and gums strong and healthy. Rice or bread or chapattis are a good source of carbohydrates, which provide energy to the body. Therefore, it is important to include the mentioned food items in our diet.

Page No 27:

Question 14:

Ravi, aged seven, dislikes milk and will not take it in any form in his daily diet. What important components of a balanced diet are getting left out?

Answer:

Milk is an important source of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals (primarily calcium). Vitamins and minerals help us remain healthy and protect us from various diseases. Carbohydrates are important as they provide energy to the body. Milk is a very important source of proteins. Thus, these nutrients, which are important components of a balanced diet, are getting left out from Ravi's diet.

Page No 27:

Question 15:

Pankaj and Surya love to visit the local market. They spend a lot of time and all their pocket money eating pizzas, burgers and ice cream. Is this good for them? What do you think they should do?

Answer:

Pankaj and Surya are eating junk food which is rich in fats and carbohydrates. Junk foods generally lack in vitamins and roughage. If eaten too often, it can make a person obese and overweight. Thus, this food is not good for them. Pankaj and Surya should eat a balanced diet instead, which includes all important components such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and roughage, and in the right proportions.    



Page No 28:

Question 16:

List the main functions of carbohydrates, fats and proteins used in our body.

Answer:

Carbohydrates give us energy.
Fats provide us double the energy as obtained from the same quantity of carbohydrates.
Proteins are required for the growth and repair of the body. Proteins also aid in performing important chemical reactions in our body.

Page No 28:

Question 17:

Copy the table in your notebook and complete it.

Nutrient Deficiency
Disease
Symptoms of
Disease
  night blindness cannot see well in
dim light
vitamin C   swollen and
bleeding gums
  rickets  
iron   pale and tired
  beri beri  

Answer:

 

Nutrient Deficiency
Disease
Symptoms of
Disease
Vitamin A Night blindness Cannot see well in
dim light
Vitamin C Scurvy Swollen and
bleeding gums
Vitamin D Rickets Children do not grow normally and have bow legs.
Iron Anaemia Paleness and tiredness
Vitamin B Beri beri Soreness in the mouth, tiredness and weakness

Page No 28:

Question 18:

Before athletic events, many athletes eat large amounts of food made from rice or wheat and potatoes. Why do they eat these foods?

Answer:

Carbohydrates provide instantaneous energy. Carbohydrate-rich foods such as rice, wheat and potatoes, provide the requisite energy to the athletes, in order to perform various activities like running, jumping, swimming, cycling, etc.  

Page No 28:

Question 19:

Give three examples of vitamins and their functions.

Answer:

The three examples of vitamins are vitamins A, B and  C.
Vitamin A keeps the eyes and skin healthy and helps prevent infection.
Vitamin B aids in growth, makes skin healthy, and enables proper functioning of nerves and muscles.
Vitamin C helps to keep blood vessels, teeth and gums strong and healthy. It also helps healing cuts and injuries.

Page No 28:

Question 20:

The menus for three children for a day are listed below. Study the menus and answer the questions that follow:
Child A: 8.00 am: egg, toast, apple. orange, glass of milk.
12.00 pm: cucumber raita, rice, dal, bhindi sabzi (lady's fingers)
8.00 pm: chapatti, vegetable and paneer salad, dal, glass of milk

Child B: 8.00 am: a glass of orange juice, a bowl of cornflakes in milk
12.00 pm: potato chips, a can of soft drink, chocolate ice cream
8.00 pm: buttered bread roll, pineapple, buttered corn, ice cream

Child C: 8.00 am: a glass of orange juice, a burfi, a glass of sweetened milk
12.00 pm: cheese pizza, potato chips, a glass of milk
8.00 pm: spinach salad, a bun, a glass of milk

(a) Which child had a balanced diet?
(b) What must child C add to complete a balanced diet?
(c) Is the diet of child B a healthy one? Explain your answer.
(d) Which foods in these children's diets are foods to avoid? Why?

Answer:


(a) Child A had a balanced diet.
(b) Child C must eat carbohydrate-rich food such as rice or chapatti.
(c) The diet of child B is not healthy because it includes too much fat-rich food.
(d) In child B's diet, soft drink, buttered bread roll, buttered corn and chocolate ice cream should be avoided because these contain excessive fats that cause obesity. In child C's diet, burfi, cheese pizza, potato chips and bun should be avoided because these contain too much sugar and fats that are not good in the long term. They may cause high blood sugar and obesity.



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