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Page No 201:

Question A:

Solve the following crossword puzzle:
Figure

Across
3. Green plants make their food through this method
5. It is the most abundant gas in air
Down
1. It is the blanket of air around the earth
2. Moving air is known as
4. This gas is essential for life
6. An octopus respires through it

Answer:

Page No 201:

Question B.1:

The gas which turns lime water milky is
(a) oxygen
(b) nitrogen
(c) carbon dioxide
(d) none of these

Answer:

(c) carbon dioxide
The gas which turns lime water milky is carbon dioxide.

Page No 201:

Question B.2:

Which one of the following aqatic animals respires through lungs?
(a) dolphin
(b) fish
(c) octopus
(d) crab

Answer:

(a) dolphin
Dolphin respires through its lungs.

Page No 201:

Question B.3:

Plants breathe through stomata which are present on the
(a) leaves
(b) stems
(c) roots
(d) flowers

Answer:

(a) leaves
Plants breathe through stomata which are spread across the surface of the leaves.

Page No 201:

Question B.4:

Most abundant gas present in atmosphere is
(a) oxygen
(b) nitrogen
(c) carbon dioxide
(d) argon

Answer:

(b) nitrogen
Most abundant gas present in the atmosphere is nitrogen.

Page No 201:

Question B.5:

Air helps in movement of
(a) gliders
(b) parachutes
(c) kites
(d) all of these

Answer:

(d) all of these
Air helps in the movement of gliders, parachutes, kites, etc. 

Page No 201:

Question B.6:

Air plays an important role in
(a) water cycle
(b) motor cycle
(c) bicycle
(d) none of these

Answer:

(a) water cycle

Air plays an important role in the water cycle.



Page No 202:

Question C:

Fill in the blanks:
1. The percentage of carbon dioxide in the air is .............................. .
2. Plants need .............................. to make their food.
3. .............................. is the blanket of air around us.
4. Nitrogen is the largest component of .............................. .
5. Living things respire to get .............................. from food.

Answer:

1. The percentage of carbon dioxide in the air is 0.03 percent.
2. Plants need carbon dioxide, water and sunlight to make their food.
3. Atmosphere is the blanket of air around us.
4. Nitrogen is the largest component of atmosphere.
5. Living things respire to get energy from food.

Page No 202:

Question D:


Match the items is Column A with the items in Column B:

Column A Column B
1. Photosynthesis (a) Plants
2. Respiration (b) Fish
3. Wind (c) Manufacture food
4. Gills (d) Release energy
5. Stomata (e) Moving air

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Photosynthesis (c) Manufacture food
2. Respiration (d) Release energy
3. Wind (e) Moving air
4. Gills (b) Fish
5. Stomata (a) Plants

Page No 202:

Question E:

Write True (T) or False (F) against the following statements in the given brackets:
1. Plants need oxygen to prepare food during photosynthesis. ( )
2. Aquatic animals use dissolved oxygen from water. ( )
3. Moving air is called wind. ( )
4. Soil does not contain air. ( )
5. Atmosphere is essential for sustaining life on earth. ( )

Answer:

1. False
During photosynthesis, plants absorb carbon dioxide to prepare food.

2. True

3. True

4. False
Soil contains air.

5. True

Page No 202:

Question F:

Complete the following chart. You may take help from different sources.

Fact Justify
Air is present everywhere.    ____________________________
Greenhouse gases are important for us.   ___________________________
Plants and animals need each other.   ___________________________

Answer:

Fact Justify
Air is present everywhere.  

Air is everywhere, and even if we can't see it, we feel it. When the air moves, we call it to be wind. When the air blows fast, it moves the leaves, flowers and branches of the plants. The movement of the kites and clouds is possible only due to wind. It also helps to move boats, airplanes, windmills, balloons, etc.

Greenhouse gases are important for us. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas which is used by the plants to prepare food during photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide causes the greenhouse effect due to which the Earth remains moderately warm and able to sustain favourable conditions for living organisms.
Plants and animals need each other.  

The process of respiration and photosynthesis balances the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air. Carbon dioxide released by humans and animals during respiration is used by the green plants to prepare food during photosynthesis. Again, oxygen released by the green plants during photosynthesis, is used by humans and animals for respiration.



Page No 203:

Question 1:

A traffic policeman always wears a mask on his nose. Why?

Answer:

Air contains suspended dust particles and harmful impurities. To prevent these dust particles and impurities from entering the respiratory tract, a traffic policeman always wears a mask on his nose.

Page No 203:

Question 2:

In rainy season why do earth worms come out of the soil?

Answer:

Earthworms, through their moist skin, breath in the air present in the. During rainy season, water replaces the air present in the soil, thereby making the latter air-deficient. Therefore, to respire, earthworms come out of the soil.

Page No 203:

Question 3:

When an empty glass is inverted into a bucket containing water, water does not enter into the glass. Why?

Answer:

When an empty glass in inverted into a water filled bucket, the water fails to enter the glass because the latter contains air. This air prevents the water from entering into the glass.

Page No 203:

Question 4:

Why does a lump of cotton wool sink in water?

Answer:

When a lump of cotton wool is placed in water the air present between its fibres is displaced by water. This makes the lump heavy, as a result it sinks.     



Page No 204:

Question A.1:

Which gas is responsible for greenhouse effect?

Answer:

Carbon dioxide is responsible for the greenhouse effect. Although carbon dioxide is prominent, other gases such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone are also responsible for greenhouse effect.

Page No 204:

Question A.2:

How is compressed air useful in the tyres of automobiles?

Answer:

The compressed air used to inflate the tyres of automobiles makes the latter move easily and more comfortably. Also, it does not cause much pollution.
 

Page No 204:

Question A.3:

Name the organ present in plant leaves which helps in the exchange of gases.

Answer:

Stomata present across the surface of the leaves helps in the exchange of gases.

Page No 204:

Question A.4:

Which is the chief gas of the atmosphere?

Answer:

Nitrogen is the chief gas of the atmosphere.

Page No 204:

Question A.5:

In an empty room what substance is present around you?

Answer:

Air is present all around us in an empty room.

Page No 204:

Question A.6:

Which gas is given out during photosynthesis?

Answer:

Plants release oxygen during photosynthesis.

Page No 204:

Question A.7:

Which gas does not support burning?

Answer:

Carbon dioxide does not support burning.

Page No 204:

Question A.8:

Write two uses of compressed air.

Answer:

Following are the two uses of compressed air:
1. It is used in hydraulic press and hydraulic lift.
2. It is used to inflate tyres of vehicles to allow them to move easily.
 

Page No 204:

Question B.1:

What is respiration? How important is respiration for living beings?

Answer:

Respiration is the process in which the food gets oxidised in the living cells to produce carbon dioxide and water besides releasing energy. It is essential for all living beings, as they need energy to perform vital functions.

Page No 204:

Question B.2:

State the importance of air dissolved in water.

Answer:

Aquatic animals like fish, crab, octopus, etc., live in water. They respire through special organs called gills and absorb dissolved oxygen from the water. This is the importance of air dissolved in water.

Page No 204:

Question B.3:

How can you show that air is present in soil?

Answer:

If we take some dry soil in a glass and slowly add water to it, we will observe some bubbles of air coming out from it. This activity clearly proves that dry soil contains air.

Page No 204:

Question B.4:

How do earthworms breathe air?

Answer:

Earthworm respire through their moist skin. It lives deep into the soil and does not get oxygen directly from the air. Hence, it absorbs oxygen from the soil.

Page No 204:

Question B.5:

List four activities that are possible due to the presence of air around us.

Answer:

Following are the four activities that are possible due to the presence of air around us:

1. Drying and winnowing of agricultural products

2. Running windmills

3. Inflating the tyres of vehicles

4. Moving parachutes, airplanes, sailboats, etc.

Page No 204:

Question B.6:

How will you show that air contains dust particles?

Answer:

In the morning, if we examine the beam of light entering our room, we will notice tiny particles floating in air. These are dust particles. Hence, it proves that air contains dust particles.

Page No 204:

Question B.7:

List four important uses of air.

Answer:

Four important uses of air are as follows:

1. Air supports life on our planet.

2. Air makes it possible for the insects and birds to fly.

3. Air plays a major role in the water cycle.

4. Air helps in the dispersal of seeds and pollination.

Page No 204:

Question B.8:

What is atmosphere? Why is it essential for life on earth?

Answer:

Atmosphere is a blanket of air surrounding the Earth’s surface.
Atmosphere contains oxygen which is essential for animals to breathe and get energy from food. It also contains carbon dioxide which is used by the plants to make their own food. Thus, atmosphere is essential to sustain life on the Earth.



Page No 205:

Question C.1:

How will you show that air contains water vapour?

Answer:

Take out a chilled water bottle from the refrigerator and keep it on a table. After sometime, you will observe droplets of water appearing all over the outer surface of the bottle. This happens because the water vapour, present in the air, condenses after coming in contact with the cold surface of the bottle. Hence, this proves that air contains water vapour.

Page No 205:

Question C.2:

Why should you breathe through your nose and not your mouth?

Answer:

Air around us contains suspended dust particles and harmful microorganisms. When we breathe in air through our nose, the hair and mucus present inside the latter traps the dust particles and microorganisms from entering our respiratory tract. Thus, we should breathe in air through our nose and not through our mouth.

Page No 205:

Question C.3:

Write a short note on the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in nature.

Answer:

Respiration and photosynthesis balance the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air. Carbon dioxide exhaled by animals during respiration is used by the green plants during photosynthesis, and oxygen released by the plants during the process of photosynthesis is inhaled by animals for respiration.

Page No 205:

Question C.4:

Why do mountaineers carry oxygen cylinders with them?

Answer:

Amount of oxygen gradually decreases with the increase in altitude. So, as we climb higher and higher, the oxygen level becomes low. This is the reason why mountaineers carry oxygen cylinders with them so that they don't face any difficulty to respire.

Page No 205:

Question C.5:

Write briefly about the composition of air.

Answer:

Air is a mixture of several gases. The gases present in air are mainly nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%). Air also contains a small amount of carbon dioxide, helium, argon, water vapour, dust particles and other impurities.

Page No 205:

Question C.6:

What are the uses of windmills?

Answer:

Following are the uses of windmills:
(a) It is used for drawing water from tube wells.
(b) It is used for running flour mills.
(c) It is used for generating electricity.

Page No 205:

Question C.7:

How do plants fulfil their nitrogen requirements?

Answer:

Some plants like leguminous plants, fulfil their nitrogen requirements by converting atmospheric nitrogen into soluble nitrogenous compounds that get absorbed through their roots. Plants which can not fix atmospheric nitrogen, absorb the latter from the nitrogen-rich fertilisers that are applied around their roots.

Page No 205:

Question C.8:

Air contains oxygen and nitrogen. How will you prove it?

Answer:

Take a glass vessel and fix a candle at its centre. Now, fill half the glass vessel with water and place an inverted gas jar over the candle. Note the water level. Remove the gas jar and light the candle, and again cover it with the former. After some time, the candle will extinguish and the level of water in the gas jar will rise up. As all the oxygen in the jar was consumed, the candle stopped burning, and the place occupied by this gas became empty, thereby raising the level of water in the jar. Now, remove the gas jar by keeping its mouth tightly closed, and introduce a burning splinter into it. The splinter will get extinguished. This shows that the remaining air in the jar does not support burning. This gas is nitrogen.
This activity proves that air contains oxygen and nitrogen.

Page No 205:

Question C.9:

Define the following:
(a) Photosynthesis
(b) Respiration

Answer:

(a) Photosynthesis - It is the process by which green plants prepare food by using carbon dioxide and water in presence of sunlight. This process occurs in the chloroplast that contains a green pigment called chlorophyll.

(b) Respiration- It is the process by which food gets oxidised in the living cells to form carbon dioxide and water besides releasing a large amount of energy.

Page No 205:

Question C.10:

How do aquatic plants and animals respire?

Answer:

Aquatic animals and plants have a special organ called gills, which help them to absorb oxygen dissolved in the water. Some aquatic animals like dolphins have lungs for respiration.

Page No 205:

Question C.11:

How is oxygen in air replaced?

Answer:

Green plants release oxygen during the process of photosynthesis which is then inhaled by animals for respiration. This continuous replacement of atmospheric oxygen also balances its amount in the air.



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