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Page No 101:

Question A:

Solve the following crossword puzzle:
Figure

Across
1. This animal has lone backbone and move with the help of scales
4. It is the longest bone of the human body
5. It is the place where two or more bones meet

Down
2. A flightless bird of Australia
3. It is the middle part of a cockroach's body
4. Organ of swimming in fishes

Answer:

Page No 101:

Question B.1:

Patella bone is located on
(a) knee
(b) ankle
(c) wrist
(d) palm

Answer:

(a) knee
Patella bone is located on knee.

Page No 101:

Question B.2:

Which of the following animals moves with the help of looping movements?
(a) earthworm
(b) fish
(c) snake
(d) cockroach

Answer:

(c) snake
A snake curves its body into many loops. Each loop gives the snake a forward push by pressing against the ground. In this way, the snake moves forward very fast.

Page No 101:

Question B.3:

Which of the following helps a bird to fly?
(a) hollow bones
(b) wings
(c) streamlined body
(d) all

Answer:

(d) all
Hollow bones make the birds light in weight. The wings are made up of feathers and streamlined body reduces air resistance. All these adaptations in birds help them in flying.

Page No 101:

Question B.4:

Muscles are attached to bone by
(a) tendon
(b) cartilage
(c) ligament
(d) nerves

Answer:

(a) tendon
Muscles are attached to bones by tendons.

Page No 101:

Question B.5:

A fluid that lubricates the bones is
(a) synovial
(b) oil
(c) blood
(d) ligament

Answer:

(a) synovial
Synovial fluid lubricates the bones. It is present in between the joints.

Page No 101:

Question B.6:

Longest bone of a human body is
(a) radius
(b) ulna
(c) femur
(d) fibula

Answer:

(c) femur
Longest bone of a human body is femur which is also known as thigh muscle.

Page No 101:

Question B.7:

The example of ball-and-socket joint is
(a) shoulder
(b) skull
(c) ankle
(d) knee

Answer:

(a) shoulder
In a ball-and-socket joint, the ball of one bone is fitted in the socket of another bone. This type of joint is found in shoulders and hips.

Page No 101:

Question B.8:

The human skull consists of ....................... bones.

Answer:

(c) 22

The human skull consists of 22 bones.

Page No 101:

Question C:

Fill in the blanks:
1. A snail moves with the help of its .............................. .
2. An animal with three pairs of legs and two pairs of wings is a .............................. .
3. Joints of the bones help in the .............................. of the body.
4. .............................. joint is present at the elbow.
5. The .............................. protects the brain.

Answer:

1. A snail moves with the help of its muscular foot.
2. An animal with three pairs of legs and two pairs of wings is a cockroach.
3. Joints of bones help in the movement of the body.
4. Hinge joint is present at the elbow.
5. The skull protects the brain.



Page No 102:

Question 1:

Does the skull have a movable joint? It yes, name it.

Answer:

Skull does not have a movable joint.

Page No 102:

Question 2:

Why is an earthworm not able to move on a plain glass tile?

Answer:

A number of tiny hair-like bristles are present on the lower surface of an earthworm's body. These bristles help it to get a good grip on the surface of a ground. However, these bristles do not provide good grip on a plain glass tile; hence, the earthworm cannot move on tile.

Page No 102:

Question 3:

Our vertebral column is made up of 33-ring shaped vertebrae. If it is made up of just a single bone, what disadvantage would we face?

Answer:

If our vertebral column is made of a single bone only, we will not be able to bend our body properly. Also, the free movement of our body will be obstructed.

Page No 102:

Question 4:

Why do underwater divers wear flippers on their feet?

Answer:

Flippers allow underwater divers to swim freely without any obstruction. They provide the same support in swimming as that provided by fins to fish.

Page No 102:

Question D:

Match the items is Column A with the items in Column B

Column A Column B
1. Bone of the forearm (a) Hinge joint
2. Ring-shaped bones (b) Ulna
3. Joins bone to muscle (c) Tibia
4. Bone of leg (d) Ligament
5. Knees (e) Tendon
  (f) Vertebrae

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Bone of the forearm  (b) Ulna
2. Ring-shaped bones (f) Vertebrae
3. Joins bone to muscle (e) Tendon
4. Bone of leg (c) Tibia
5. Knees (a) Hinge joint

Page No 102:

Question E:

Write True (T) or False (F) against the following statements in the given brackets:
1. Snakes are limbless reptiles. ( )
2. Birds are suited for aerial mode of life. ( )
3. Femur is the longest bone of the body. ( )
4. The cockroach has an exoskeleton. ( )
5. Birds have hollow bones. ( )

Answer:

1. True

2. True

3. True

4. True

5. True



Page No 103:

Question A.1:

What name is given to the group of animals possessing vertebral column?

Answer:

Vertebrates are the animals possessing vertebral column.

Page No 103:

Question A.2:

How many pairs of legs a cockroach have?

Answer:

A cockroach has three pairs of legs.

Page No 103:

Question A.3:

Which type of bones do birds have?

Answer:

Birds have hollow bones.

Page No 103:

Question A.4:

How many pairs of ribs form the rib cage?

Answer:

12 pairs of ribs form the rib cage.



Page No 104:

Question A.5:

What are the two principal divisions of the human skeleton?

Answer:

The two principal divisions of the human skeleton:
1. Axial skeleton
2. Appendicular skeleton

Page No 104:

Question A.6:

Give two examples of ball-and-socket joint.

Answer:

Hip and shoulder joints are two examples of ball-and-socket joint.

Page No 104:

Question A.7:

Name two bony girdles of our body.

Answer:

Pectoral girdle and pelvic girdle are the two bony girdles of our body.

Page No 104:

Question A.8:

Name a limbless reptile that moves with the help of scales present on the underside of its body.

Answer:

Snake is a limbless reptile that moves with the help of scales present on the underside of its body.

Page No 104:

Question B.1:

Name the parts of axial skeleton in man.

Answer:

Axial skeleton consists of bones of skull, vertebral column and rib cage.

Page No 104:

Question B.2:

Explain how an earthworm moves.

Answer:

When an earthworm moves, the bristles at the rear end hold firmly to the ground, while the front end of the body stretches forward with the help of muscles. Then, the bristles under the front end anchor the front part and contract, while those under rear end relax. This process is repeated and the earthworm moves forward with the help of a wave of contractions of its body.

Page No 104:

Question B.3:

How does a snail move?

Answer:

A snail moves with the help of a muscular foot. The foot produces a slimy substance called mucus. The snails crawls smoothly on the layer of the mucus.

Page No 104:

Question B.4:

Differentiate between movable and immovable joints.

Answer:

Movable joints Immovable joints
These joints allow movement. These joints do not allow any movement.
Their main function is to provide movement. Their main function is to provide protection.
Ball and socket joint is an example of movable joint. Bones of our skull are examples of immovable joint.

Page No 104:

Question B.5:

Write a short note on ball-and-socket joint.

Answer:

Ball-and-socket joint:
In this joint, the rounded head of one bone is fitted in the hollow, cup-shaped socket of another bone. The bone that fits into the socket is free to move in all directions about the joint. It is the most mobile joint that allows greatest freedom of movement.
Example: Joint of upper arm and shoulder bone

Page No 104:

Question B.6:

How does a fish move?

Answer:

Fishes have a streamlined body shape. This shape allows them to move easily in water. When a fish swims in water, the muscles that cover its skeleton cause the front part of the body to curve towards one side. On the other hand, the tail (with fins) curves towards the opposite side. Then, the body and the tail immediately curve towards the other side. This causes a jerk, thereby pushing the body to move forward. Many such jerks in succession help the fish to move forward.

Page No 104:

Question B.7:

Explain how muscles work in pairs.

Answer:

Muscles work in pairs in a way that one muscle pulls the bone away from the joint, while the other pulls it back. If one muscle contracts, its partner (the other muscle of the pair) relaxes. This pulls the bone towards the contracted muscle.

Page No 104:

Question C.1:

What are the special features that help a bird to fly?

Answer:

Features of a bird that help it to fly:

(a) It has a smooth, streamlined body that offers little resistance to the flow of air.
(b) It has hollow bones that makes it light.
(c) It has strong flight muscles that are attached to the wings.
(d) It has wings that spread out and help a bird to fly against the force of gravity.
(e) It has air sacs in its body that provide extra oxygen required for flight.

Page No 104:

Question C.2:

What are the differences between bones and cartilage?

Answer:

Bone  Cartilage
Bone is composed of a tough and inflexible material. Cartilage is composed of a firm and inflexible material.
Bone cells lie singly. Cells of cartilage lie in groups.

Page No 104:

Question C.3:

State four important functions of human skeleton.

Answer:

Functions of human skeletal system:

  1. It gives shape to the body.

  2. It provides support to the body.

  3. It protects internal organs of the body.

  4. It helps in the movement of the body.

Page No 104:

Question C.4:

What is a joint? Name its different types and explain any one of them.

Answer:

A joint is a region where two or more bones meet. Different types of joints are:
1. Fixed joints or immovable joints
2. Slightly movable joints
3. Freely movable joints

Slightly movable joints: In these joints, flexible cartilage is present between the bones. The cartilage makes the slight movement possible. Their main function is to provide support. Examples of such joints include the joints between the ribs and the breast bone.

Page No 104:

Question C.5:

What enables a cockroach to walk, to climb as well as fly?

Answer:

The three pairs of legs present in a cockroach allow it to run very fast. The body of a cockroach is covered with a hard exoskeleton made up of different units joined together. This helps the cockroach in its movement. Two pairs of wings are also attached to its breast. They allow the cockroach to fly short distances. Hence, a cockroach can walk, climb and fly.

Page No 104:

Question C.6:

Name the freely movable joints in body. Explain them briefly.

Answer:

Freely movable joints allow free movement in various directions. There are four types of these joints present in our body. They are:
1. Ball-and-socket joint: In this type of joint, the ball of one bone is fitted in the socket of another bone. Such joints are found in hips and shoulders.
2. Pivot joint: In this type of joint, the rounded surface of one bone fits into a ring formed by the other bone. Pivot joints occur between the first two vertebrae of the backbone.
3. Hinge joint: It allows the angular movement of bones in one plane only. Such joints are found in knee and ankle.
4. Gliding joint: In this type of joint, one bone slips over the other bone at the place of the joint. It allows sliding movement in which two bones can slide over each other.



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