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#### Question A:

Solve the following crossword puzzle:
Figure

Across
2. The coil inside an electric bulb
3. It allows the flow of current

Down
1. The best conductor of electricity
3. A small source of current
4. It is used to open or close the circuit

#### Question B.1:

If current is drawn from the cell, the circuit is said to be
(a) open
(b) complete
(c) magnetised
(d) fused

(b) complete
When a circuit is complete, current is drawn from a cell.

#### Question B.2:

The closed path in which the current flows is called a/an
(a) electric circuit
(b) switch
(c) conductor
(d) cell

(a) electric circuit
An electric circuit is one which consists of a cell, a switch, a conductor and an electrical device. When the circuit is complete, current flows through it.

#### Question B.3:

In a primary cell, the chemical energy is converted into
(a) electrical energy
(b) sound energy
(c) mechanical energy
(d) light energy

(a) electrical energy
A primary cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

#### Question B.4:

Which of the following uses a chemical reaction to produce an electric current?
(a) dry cell
(b) windmill
(c) steam engine
(d) bulb

(a) dry cell
Chemical reaction takes place inside a dry cell to produce electrical current.

#### Question B.5:

An electric switch is also sometimes referred to as a
(a) circuit
(b) key
(c) cell
(d) battery

(b) key
The key of an electric circuit is also known as switch.

#### Question B.6:

The device used to open or close an electric circuit is called a/an
(a) cell
(b) electric circuit
(c) electric switch
(d) battery

(c) electric switch
Electric switch, of an electrical device, acts as a key to open or close a circuit.

#### Question B.7:

Which of these appliances in your house is not run by electricity?
(a) geyser
(b) gas burner
(c) air conditioner
(d) music system

(b) gas burner
Gas burner uses gas, not electricity.

#### Question C:

Write True (T) or False (F) against the following statements in the given brackets:
1. Electricity in motion is called current electricity. ( )
2. Rubber is a good example of electric insulator. ( )
3. The base of an electric cell is its negative terminal. ( )
4. The supporting wire breaks in a fused bulb. ( )
5. Electric current can flow through metals. ( )
6. An electric cell two terminals. ( )
7. An electric bulb has a filament that is connected to its terminals. ( )
8. Instead of metal wires, a jute string can be used to make a circuit. ( )

1. True (T)

2. True (T)

3. True (T)

4. True (T)

5. True (T)

6. True (T)

7. True (T)

8. False (F)
Jute is an insulator; hence, it cannot be used in an electric circuit.

#### Question D:

Figures below show a cell connected to a bulb through insulate copper wires. State with a reason in which case the bulb will glow and not glow:

Figure

(b)
All the circuits except the one in Option (b) are open; therefore, only (b) will allow the flow of current.

#### Question E:

Figures below show a cell connected to a bulb different types of material. State with a reason in which case the bulb will glow and not glow:

Figure

(a) The bulb will not glow. This is because the rubber band is an insulator and the circuit is incomplete.

(b) The bulb will not glow because jute and silk threads don't conduct electricity.

(c) The bulb will glow in this case, as the circuit is completed by the copper wire, which is a good conductor of electricity.

(d) The bulb will not glow because the circuit is open.

(e) The bulb will not glow, as cotton does not conduct electricity.

(f) The bulb will not glow because of the plastic piece which is an insulator.

#### Question 1:

Using the 'Conduction Tester' on a object, it was found that the bulb begins to glow. Is that object a conductor an insulator? Explain.

The object is a conductor because when the tester is touched to it, the bulb starts glowing indicating the flow of current. Since conductors are materials that allow current to flow through them, this object is a conductor.

#### Question 2:

Nothing happens if you touch a cell but you can get a bad shock if you touch an electrical socket. Justify your answer by giving proper reason.

There is not enough voltage in an electric cell to result into a shock. However, electrical sockets are  powerful enough to give an electric shock. Hence, nothing happens if we touch a cell, but get a bad shock if we touch an electrical socket.

#### Question 3:

Arrangement of electric cell in the electrical circuit affects the amount of current flowing through the circuit. Explain why?

The current drawn from an electric cell in a circuit depends on the former's arrangement, as the final terminal voltage of combination depends on the arrangement of the cell.

#### Question F:

Match the words with the correct symbols given below:
Closed switch  Electric bulb  Battery of dry cells  Single electric cell  Open switch

Figure

(a) Battery of dry cells

(b) Single electric cell

(c) Bulb

(d) Closed switch

(e) Open switch

#### Question A.1:

What do you understand by a primary cell?

Cells which provide current as a result of an irreversible chemical reaction are called primary cells.

#### Question A.2:

What do you mean by a battery?

A battery is the collection of one or more cells in which the chemical energy is converted into electrical energy.

#### Question A.3:

What is the function of an electric bulb?

Function of an electric bulb is to produce light energy from the electricity passing through its filament. The filament gets heated up as the electricity passes through it.

#### Question A.4:

Name the material that allows electric current to flow through it easily.

Metals are good conductors of electricity; hence, they allow electric current to flow through them easily.
Example: Silver, aluminium, gold, copper, etc.

#### Question A.5:

What is the common name of an electric switch?

Electric switch is commonly known as the key of an electric circuit. When the key is closed, current flows through the circuit, and when the key is opened, current stops flowing through the circuit.

#### Question A.6:

How many terminals does a cell have?

A cell has two terminals, i.e. a positive terminal and a negative terminal.

#### Question A.7:

Name the circuit component that is used to start or stop the flow of current in the circuit.

Key or an electric switch is the component that is used to start or stop the flow of current through the circuit.

#### Question A.8:

Will the electric current flow in a circuit in which there is a gap between two wires?

No, electric current will not flow through a circuit that has a gap between its two wires, as the circuit is incomplete.

#### Question B.1:

Distinguish between open and closed circuits.

 Open Circuit Closed Circuit In an open circuit, the key or switch is open. In a closed circuit, the key or switch is closed. Electrical current does not flow through an open circuit. Electrical current flows through a closed circuit as it is complete.

#### Question B.2:

What is the difference between a cell and a battery?

 Cell Battery Cell is a single unit. Battery is the combination of many cells.

#### Question B.3:

Why should an electrician use rubber gloves while repairing an electric switch at your home?

Rubber is a bad conductor of electricity or simply an insulator which does not allow the flow of electricity through it. Thus, an electrician uses rubber gloves, while repairing an electrical switch, to protect himself from an electric shock.

#### Question B.4:

What is the source of electric current in a cell?

In a cell, chemical reaction takes place to produce electricity. Therefore, source of electricity in a cell is the chemical reaction taking place among the chemicals present inside it.

#### Question B.5:

What is the importance of electric switch?

An electric switch controls the flow of current through a circuit. When the switch is closed, current starts flowing through the circuit, and when it is opened, current stops flowing.

#### Question B.6:

How are rechargeable cells different from ordinary primary cells?

 Ordinary Cells Rechargeable Cells Ordinary cells can be used only once. Rechargeable cells can be charged and reused again and again. For example, the cells used in torch lights and wall clocks are ordinary cells. For example, the cells used in cameras and mobiles are rechargeable cells.

#### Question B.7:

Why electricity cannot flow in an open circuit?

Electricity can not flow in an open circuit because the latter is incomplete. For electricity to flow in an electrical circuit, it should be complete.

#### Question C.1:

Distinguish between primary and secondary cells.

 Primary Cell Secondary Cell Primary cells are designed to be used once only, i.e. these cells can be used as long as their chemical mixtures hold power, and after that they becomes useless. Secondary cells undergo reversible reactions, and they can be recharged once their power diminishes. For example, dry cells of torch lights and wall clocks For example, car batteries

#### Question C.2:

Give the construction and working of an electric bulb.

​Construction of an electric bulb is as follows:

An electric bulb comprises a filament, inert gas, two terminals and a glass chamber to protect the inert gas from leaking.

The purpose of an electric bulb is to convert electrical energy to light energy, although some energy is lost as heat. The concept behind the working of a light bulb is - current flowing through a material heats it up and make it glow to produce light.
The current flowing through the filament of the bulb heats the latter and makes it to emit light within the visible range.

#### Question C.3:

What do you mean by an electric circuit? Draw the circuit diagram for a circuit having three cells, one bulb and a switch.

An electric circuit is a closed path through which the current flows. An electric circuit comprises a switch, a bulb, a cell, etc.When the switch is closed, the circuit is complete and current starts flowing through it. On the other hand, when the switch is open, the circuit is open or incomplete; hence, current stops flowing through it.

#### Question C.4:

Distinguish between conductors and insulators. Give three examples of each.

 S.No. Conductors Insulators 1. Materials which allow current to pass through them are known as conductors. Materials which don't allow current to pass through them are known as insulators. 2. Conductors consist of free electrons as charge carriers. Insulators do not posses free charge carriers. 3. Examples of conductors: copper, silver and mercury (liquid conductor) Examples of insulators: plastic, wood and oil (liquid insulator)

#### Question C.5:

An electric bulb does not glow sometimes, although it does not fuse. Explain.

An electric bulb glows when the circuit is complete and current flows through it. When a bulb fails to glow even if it is not fused, it means that the electric current is not flowing through the circuit.

#### Question C.6:

Instead of plastic, can the electric wire used at home be covered with aluminium foil? Give a reason in support of your answer.

No, the electric wire used at home should never be covered with aluminium foil as the latter is a good conductor of electricity. If wires are covered with aluminium foils, they will allow the current to flow through them, thereby leading to electrical shock.

#### Question C.7:

In the given figure, it is found that the bulb does not glow. Give a reason to support the statement.
Figure

Wood is an insulator, i.e. bad conductor of electricity. In the given figure, the electrical circuit is not complete as wood acts as an open switch; hence, the bulb fails to glow.

#### Question C.8:

You are advised to wear rubber slippers or shows when handling electrical appliances. Why?

Our body is a good conductor of electricity; hence, we are advised to wear rubber slippers when handling an electrical appliance so as to protect ourselves from electrical shocks. Rubber, being an insulator or bad conductor of electricity, acts as an open switch that does not allow the electrical current to flow through our body.

#### Question C.9:

Why are electric wires made our of copper of aluminium and not silver even though it is a better conductor of electricity.