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Page No 218:

Question A.1:

The magnetic needle in a compass always points?
(a) east
(b) west
(c) north
(d) south

Answer:

(a) north

The magnetic needle in a compass always points north as the needle tends to align itself to the earth's magnetic field.   

Page No 218:

Question A.2:

Which of the gases turns lime water milky?
(a) carbon dioxide
(b) oxygen
(c) nitrogen
(d) methane

Answer:

(a) Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide turns lime water milky. The reaction is as follows.

CaO + CO2     CaCO3Lime               Calcium carbonate  water                   (Milky)

Page No 218:

Question A.3:

Which of the following is a characteristic of a magnet?
(a) repulsion
(b) attraction
(c) none of these
(d) both of these

Answer:

(d) both of these

Repulsion and attraction both are characteristics of a magnet. Like poles of magnets repel and unlike poles attract each other.

Page No 218:

Question A.4:

Biodegradable wastes can be used for producing
(a) biogas
(b) manure
(c) both of these
(d) none of these

Answer:

(c) both of these

Biodegradable wastes can be used for producing biogas and manure. 

Page No 218:

Question A.5:

Which of the following is not a non-biodegradable waste?
(a) Glass
(b) Metal scrap
(c) Plates
(d) Cow dung

Answer:

(d) Cow dung

Cow dung is a biodegradable waste.

Page No 218:

Question A.6:

Plastics when burned produces
(a) harmful gases
(b) manure
(c) mixture of both
(d) all of the above

Answer:

(a) harmful gases

Plastics when burnt produces harmful gases that can cause heart disease, cancer and depression.

Page No 218:

Question B:

Fill in the blanks:
1. Like poles ........................ while unlike poles ........................  each other.
2. Formation of clouds involves ........................  of water vapour.
3. Biodegradable wastes can be used for ........................
4. Rain fall can be an example of ........................
5. The word plastic comes from the Greek word ........................

Answer:

1. Like poles repel while unlike poles attract each other.
2. Formation of clouds involves condensation of water vapour.
3. Biodegradable wastes can be used for composting.
4. Rainfall can be an example of precipitation.
5. The word plastic comes from the Greek word plastikos.

Page No 218:

Question C:

Match the columns:

Column A Column B
1. Magnetic compass (a) Sea water
2. Saline water (b) Gills
3. Excess rainfall (c) Solid waste
4. Octopus (d) Direction
5. Garbage (e) Flood

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Magnetic compass (d) Direction
2. Saline water (a) Sea water
3. Excess rainfall (e) Flood
4. Octopus (b) Gills
5. Garbage (c) Solid waste



Page No 219:

Question D:

Write True (T) of False (F).
1. A freely floating magnet always points in north-south direction. ( )
2. Excessive rainfall leads to drought. ( )
3. Well water contains soluble impurities. ( )
4. Incineration method needs water. ( )
5. Gaseous waste is also called garbage. ( )
6. Earth has its own magnetic field. ( )

Answer:

1. True

2. False

Excess rainfall leads to floods. Drought is caused by a shortage of rainfall.

3. True

4. False

Incineration is a method of waste disposal in which waste is burnt and converted into ash. This disposal method does not need water.

5. False

Garbage refers to solid municipal waste.

6. True

Page No 219:

Question E:

Identify the objects given in the picture.

Figure

Answer:

(a) Magnetic compass

(b) Horseshoe magnet

(c) Hot air balloon

(d) Compass

Page No 219:

Question F.1:

What is vermicomposting and why is it used?

Answer:

The process of breaking down organic materials with the help of earthworms is called vermicomposting. The end product obtained from this process is called vermicompost, which is a nutrient-rich organic substance. Vermicompost, when added to soil, increases the nutrients available in the soil.

Page No 219:

Question F.2:

In what way are rains important to us?

Answer:

Rain is very important to us. It plays an important role in the water cycle. It fills the ponds, lakes and rivers. This water can be used for a number of purposes. Forests get water from rain. Rain lowers the temperature of the atmosphere. It recharges the groundwater. Rainwater is used for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes.

Page No 219:

Question F.3:

Why do we feel suffocating in a closed room?

Answer:

In a closed room, there is no ventilation. There is no exchange of air between the room and the outdoors. Hence, we feel suffocated in a closed room as our body requires a continuous exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Page No 219:

Question F.4:

What type of waste can be recycled?

Answer:

Biodegradable wastes, such as fruit and vegetable peels, tea leaves, egg shells, spoilt food and paper, can be recycled. 

Page No 219:

Question G.1:

How do microorganisms add fungi help in keeping our environment clean?

Answer:

Micro-organisms and fungi decompose biodegradable wastes into simpler substances. If these wastes are not degraded properly, they can harm the environment. Hence, micro-organisms and fungi play an important role in keeping our environment clean.

Page No 219:

Question G.2:

List the importance of water.

Answer:

The following are the uses of water.
1. Water is used for drinking, cooking, bathing, cleaning and washing.
2. Water is used by plants for absorbing minerals and salts from the soil.
3. Water is a habitat for marine life.
4. Water acts as a reservoir of seafood, minerals and salts.

Page No 219:

Question G.3:

Write briefly about the composition of air.

Answer:

Air is a mixture of various gases. The main gases present in air are nitrogen (78.03%) and oxygen (20.99%). Small amounts of other gases, such as carbon dioxide (0.03%) , helium and argon, water vapour, dust particles and certain other impurities are also present in air. The composition of air varies from place to place and from season to season.

Page No 219:

Question G.4:

Why should we avoid using plastic bags?

Answer:

We should avoid using plastic bags for the following reasons.
1. Plastic bags choke the drains and cause wastewater to overflow.
2. If stray animals eat plastic bags, they may choke to death.
3. Recycled plastic bags contain toxic chemicals. So, the use of recycled plastic bags to keep food items is harmful to health.
4. The burning of plastics produces harmful gases and a foul smell. 

Page No 219:

Question H:

Write these words in the correct places on the word map.
Landfills, Biogas production, Incineration, Vermicomposting, Biodegradable waste, Non-biodegradable waste

To make new products  Wastes management  Recycling paper

Answer:

To make new products → Biogas production, Vermicomposting

Wastes management → Landfills, Incineration
 
Recycling paper → Biodegradable waste



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