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Page No 174:

Question A:

Solve the following crossword puzzle:
Figure

Across
4. It is a non-magnetic substance
5. Magnetite is named after this place

Down
1. Name of the book written by William Gilbert
2. The two ends of a magnet where its magnetic strength is maximum
3. It is a magnetic substance

Answer:

Page No 174:

Question B.1:

A magnet always has two poles. Therefore it is called a/an
(a) dipole
(b) artificial magnet
(c) horseshoe magnet
(d) bar magnet

Answer:

(a) dipole
A magnet always has two poles, i.e. north pole and south pole; therefore, it is called dipole.

Page No 174:

Question B.2:

In a magnet, magnetic domains are aligned in
(a) all the directions
(b) in a particular direction
(c) direction changes continuously
(d) none of these

Answer:

(c) in a particular direction
In a magnet, magnetic domains are aligned in a particular direction.

Page No 174:

Question B.3:

In a magnet, magnetic domains are aligned in
(a) all the directions
(b) in a particular direction
(c) direction changes continuously
(d) none of these

Answer:

(b) in a particular direction
In a magnet, all the magnetic domains are pointed in the same direction

Page No 174:

Question B.4:

A magnet loses its magnetic properties on
(a) heating
(b) hammering
(c) dropping form a height
(d) all of these

Answer:

(d) all of these

Magnets lose their magnetic properties when heated, hammered or dropped from some height.



Page No 175:

Question 1:

What will happen if, while making a magnet, it is rubbed haphazardly instead of rubbing in one direction?

Answer:

Rubbing a magnet along an object in one direction will cause the magnetic fields in that object to line up in one direction, i.e. all like-magnetic poles lined up and pointing at the same direction. As a result, the object will have a strong magnetic field. But, if the magnet is rubbed haphazardly on the object, the latter's magnetic domains will be randomised, resulting into demagnetisation of the same.

Page No 175:

Question 2:

Do the poles of a horseshoe magnet attract each other?

Answer:

Yes, the poles of a horseshoe magnet attract each other due to their opposite polarity. When a magnet is bent in the same shape of a horseshoe magnet, the poles get closer and the force between them increases.

Page No 175:

Question B.5:

All natural magnets are
(a) permanent magnets
(b) temporary magnets
(c) weak magnets
(d) all of these

Answer:

(c) weak magnets
All natural magnets have low magnetic power; hence, they are called weak magnets.

Page No 175:

Question B.6:

Magnetic poles
(a) always exist in pairs
(b) may exist separately
(c) always exist separately
(d) none of these

Answer:

(a) always exist in pairs

The poles of a magnet cannot be separated.

Page No 175:

Question C:

Fill in the blanks:
1. Materials which are attracted by magnets are called ............................. substances.
2. A magnet always comes to rest in the ............................. direction when suspended freely.
3. The regions on a magnet where the attraction power of the magnet is maximum are called ............................. of the magnet.
4. Like poles ............................. and unlike poles ............................. each other.
5. Artificial magnets are made in different shapes such as ............................. and ............................. .
6. Sailors use ............................. to find direction.
7. Paper is not a ............................. .
8. Magnetic poles always exist in ............................. .

Answer:

1. Materials which are attracted by magnets are called magnetic substances.
2. A magnet always comes to rest in the north-south direction when suspended freely.
3. The regions on a magnet where the attraction power of the magnet is maximum are called poles of the magnet.
4. Like poles repel and unlike poles attract each other.
5. Artificial magnets are made in different shapes such as rods and flat-bars.
6. Sailors use magnetic compass to find direction.
7. Paper is not a magnetic substance.
8. Magnetic poles always exist in pairs.

Page No 175:

Question D:

Put the phrases in the correct order to make sentences:

1. magnets, magnetites, and, lodestone, natural, are
2. substances, are attracted, magnetic, by a magnet
3. the poles, ends of a, are called, magnet, the two
4. north-south, freely, direction, towards the, always points, suspended magnet

Answer:

1. Lodestone and magnetites are natural magnets.

2. Magnetic substances are attracted by a magnet.

3. The two ends of a magnet are called the poles.

4. Freely suspended magnet always points towards the north-south direction.



Page No 176:

Question 3:

It was observed that a pencil sharpener gets attracted by both the poles of a magnet although its body is made up of plastic. How?

Answer:

The blade of a pencil sharpener is made of iron. Since, iron is a magnetic material, the pencil sharpener gets attracted towards a magnet.

Page No 176:

Question 4:

How can you demagnetise a permanent magnet help in your hand (no other substance/equipment is provided)?

Answer:

We can demagnetise a permanent magnet by dropping it from a height.

Page No 176:

Question 5:

Door of a refrigerator has a weak magnetic strip all around it. Why?

Answer:

The door of a refrigerator is fitted with a magnetic strip to keep its door closed. This strip ensures the refrigerator to remain airtight. A special, flexible strip containing magnetic particles is lined at the inner border of the refrigerator door. When the door is closed, the magnetic strip gets attracted to the metal body of the refrigerator, and the moulded rubber pad attached to the surface of the door touches the refrigerator body, creating an airtight lock.

Page No 176:

Question 6:

Self-demagnetisation takes place when opposite poles of a magnet are joined. What is the reason behind this?

Answer:

The process of self-demagnetisation takes place at the ends of a magnet, where the free poles repel each other, and gradually alter the alignment of its domain axes. Joining the opposite poles of a magnet tends to disarrange its parallel magnetic dipoles, thereby reducing its magnetism.

Page No 176:

Question 7:

One end of an iron bar is attracted and the other end is repelled by the north pole of a bar magnet Can you definitely say that iron bar is a magnet? If both ends are attracted by the north pole, what would be your conclusion?

Answer:

Yes, we can definitely say that the given iron bar is a magnet. In a magnet, like poles repel and unlike poles attract each other.
If both the ends of any object get attracted to the north pole of a magnet, then object itself is not a bar magnet. It is just a magnetic substance.

Page No 176:

Question 8:

Given a bar magnet, how will you find the west direction?

Answer:

The direction towards the right of the north-facing pole of the magnet is east, and the direction towards the left of the same pole is west.



Page No 177:

Question A.1:

What do you mean by a magnet?

Answer:

Magnet is a substance that attracts iron and other magnetic objects towards it.

Page No 177:

Question A.2:

Name two magnetic substances.

Answer:

Iron and cobalt are magnetic substances.

Page No 177:

Question A.3:

What do you understand by the poles of a magnet?

Answer:

The two ends of a magnet where the magnetic force is maximum are called poles. Each magnet has two poles, i.e. north pole and south pole.

Page No 177:

Question A.4:

What is the difference between a temporary and a permanent magnet?

Answer:

Temporary Magnet Permanent Magnet
Temporary magnets can retain their magnetic properties only for a short period of time. Permanent magnets can retain their magnetic properties for long.
Temporary magnets are usually made of iron, cobalt or nickel. Permanent magnets are prepared from mixtures of iron, cobalt or nickel with other elements.

 

Page No 177:

Question A.5:

Is magnetic attraction maximum in the middle of a bar magnet?

Answer:

No, the magnetic attraction is maximum at the poles of a bar magnet, and minimum at its middle.

Page No 177:

Question A.6:

Do magnetic poles always exist in pairs?

Answer:

Yes, magnetic poles always exist in pairs and can't be separated.

Page No 177:

Question A.7:

Do opposite poles of a magnet attract or repel each other?

Answer:

Opposite poles of two magnets attract each other.

Page No 177:

Question B.1:

Distinguish between natural and artificial magnets.

Answer:

Natural Magnet Artificial Magnet
Natural magnets are found freely existing in nature. Artificial magnets are prepared by human for various usage.
Natural magnets have low magnetic power. Artificial magnets are stronger than natural magnets.

Page No 177:

Question B.2:

What are permanent magnets made up of?

Answer:

Permanent magnets are made by mixing iron, cobalt or nickel with other elements.

Page No 177:

Question B.3:

Name any two devices in which magnets are used.

Answer:

Two devices in which magnets are used are as follows:
1 Electric motor
2 Speaker

Page No 177:

Question B.4:

Which instrument uses a magnet to find directions?

Answer:

A magnetic compass uses a magnet to find directions. It comprises a magnetic needle pivoted at the centre of a round box to point out directions.

Page No 177:

Question B.5:

How many poles does a magnet have? What are they called?

Answer:

Each magnet has two poles. They are called north pole and south pole.

Page No 177:

Question B.6:

What is a lodestone?

Answer:

The term 'lodestone' came from the word 'leading stone'. Lodestone is a natural magnet which was previously used by sailors to navigate their ships.

Page No 177:

Question B.7:

Why do we need magnetic keepers?

Answer:

We need magnetic keepers to keep the magnets safe. Magnets have a tendency to lose their property, i.e. demagnetise, if they are not properly taken care of.

Page No 177:

Question B.8:

Under what conditions magnets lose their magnetic property?

Answer:

Magnets lose their property when heated, hammered or dropped from a height.

Page No 177:

Question B.9:

How can you make a magnetic compass?

Answer:

Take a bar magnet and magnetise an iron needle with it.
Now, insert the magnetised needle in a small piece of cork. Take a glass of water and place the cork in the water.
The magnetised needle will orient itself in the north-south direction. Thus, our magnetic compass is ready.  

Page No 177:

Question B.10:

Draw the diagram of a magnetic compass.

Answer:

Page No 177:

Question C.1:

What is a natural magnet? How can you tell whether a particular substance is magnetic or non-magnetic?

Answer:

Natural magnets are those magnets which have inherent magnetic properties and are found freely existing in nature.
If a  magnetic substance such as iron, is attracted by a substance when placed within its magnetic field, then the latter is magnetic.
If a magnetic substance is not attracted by the test substance, then it is non-magnetic.

Page No 177:

Question C.2:

Classify the following substances as magnetic or non-magnetic:
iron, phosphorus, plastic, copper, zinc, cobalt, soil, water, aluminium, paper, nickel, silver, mercury.

Answer:

Magnetic substances: Iron, cobalt and nickel
Non-magnetic substances: Phosphorus, plastic, copper, zinc, soil, water, aluminium, paper, mercury and silver



Page No 178:

Question C.3:

State the characteristics of a magnet. Name the poles of a magnet. Can they be isolated?

Answer:

Following are the characteristics of a magnet:
(a) A freely suspended magnet always points at the north-south direction.
(b) Like poles of magnet repel each other and unlike poles attract each other.
(c) Magnetic poles always exist in pairs.
(d) Magnets lose their properties if they are heated, hammered or dropped from some height.

North pole and south pole are the two poles of a magnet.
No, the magnetic poles cannot be isolated, as they always exist in pairs.​

Page No 178:

Question C.4:

Describe an activity to show that magnetic effects can pass through non-magnetic materials.

Answer:

Take a plastic or a paper cup (non-magnetic material) and fix it on a stand with the help of a clamp. Then, place a magnet inside the cup and cover it with a paper (which is again a non-magnetic substance) so that the magnet is not visible. Now, attach one end of a thread to an iron clip and tie its other end to the base of the stand. After this, when you bring the clip near the base of the cup, you will observe the clip rising in the air without any support, just like a kite. This proves that magnetic effects can pass through non-magnetic materials.

Page No 178:

Question C.5:

Demonstrate an activity to show that repulsion is surest test of magnetization.

Answer:

Take the needle of a compass. Bring a non-magnetic bar near the pole of the magnetic needle. The pole will attract the bar, and the same thing will happen even if we turn the bar around with its other end facing the compass. But, if the bar is magnetic, one pole of the needle will get attracted to it, and the other pole of the needle will get repelled by the pole of the magnet facing the compass.
When one pole of the needle gets repelled by one of the poles of the magnet, the former will swing around. Hence, the north pole of the needle will face the south pole of the magnet and vice versa. Thus, we can say that only repulsion is the surest test of magnetization.

Page No 178:

Question C.6:

Explain single-touch method to magnetize an iron pin.

Answer:



In the single-touch method, the iron pin (shown as bar in the diagram) to be magnetised is kept on a table. A strong bar magnet, vertically touching one end of the pin with one of its pole, is moved along the iron pin to its other end. The bar magnet is then raised and brought back to the initial point. This process is repeated for thirty to forty times, always moving the magnet in the same direction. Then, the bar magnet is turned upside down and the process is repeated again. After completion, we will find the iron pin magnetised.

Page No 178:

Question C.7:

Describe with the help of an experiment that a freely suspended magnet comes to rest in the north-south direction.

Answer:

Let's take a bar magnet and suspend it freely by tying it's middle to a thread that is fixed at one end. The bar magnet is now free to move along a horizontal plane about the vertical axis. After some time, we will observe that the magnet comes to rest in the north-south direction. Now, if we disturb the magnet from this position, we will observe the magnet returning back to the same position, i.e. facing the north-south direction. This shows that a freely suspended magnet comes to rest in the north-south direction.



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