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Page No 122:

Question A:

Solve the following crossword puzzle:
Figure

Across
3. It is a famous desert
5. Fish breathe through these organs

Down
1. Ship of desert
2. It is an amphibian
4. It is a hydrophyte

Answer:

Page No 122:

Question B.1:

Sunken stomata are present in
(a) mesophytes
(b) xerohytes
(c) hydrophytes
(d) all of these

Answer:

(b) xerophytes
Sunken stomata are present in xerophytes to prevent loss of water.

Page No 122:

Question B.2:

Which of the following animals has webbed feet?
(a) shark
(b) duck
(c) bear
(d) whale

Answer:

(b) duck
Ducks live in water. Webbed feet help ducks to paddle through the water.

Page No 122:

Question B.3:

Which group is an example of terrestrial habitat?
(a) lion, jackal, elephant
(b) penguin, polar bear, seal
(c) duck, frog, fish
(d) whale, shark, octopus

Answer:

(a) lion, jackal, elephant

Lion, jackal and elephant live in terrestrial habitat.  

Page No 122:

Question B.4:

Leaves are reduced to spine in plants of
(a) mountain
(b) grassland
(c) desert
(d) water

Answer:

(c) desert
Leaves are reduced to spine in plants of desert to prevent the loss of water through transpiration.

Page No 122:

Question B.5:

Root system is poorly developed in
(a) hydrophytes
(b) xerophytes
(c) mesophytes
(d) none of these

Answer:

(a) hydrophytes
Root system is poorly developed in hydrophytes, as these plants always remain in water.

Page No 122:

Question C:

Fill in the blanks:
1. ........................ things do not have sensitivity.
2. Fish swims with the help of ........................
3. Camel is known as the ........................  of the desert.
4. ........................  and ........................  are freshwater aquatic animals.
5. Dolphins breathe with the help of ........................  .
6. Polar bear lives in ........................  habitat.

Answer:

1. Non-living things do not have sensitivity.
2. Fish swims with the help of fins.
3. Camel is known as the ship of the desert.
4. Ducks and frogs are freshwater aquatic animals.
5. Dolphins breathe with the help of gills.
6. Polar bear lives in polar habitat.



Page No 123:

Question D:

Match the items is Column A with the items in Column B

Column A Column B
1. Grassland (a) Camel
2. Desert (b) Deer
3. Mountain (c) Duck
4. Freshwater (d) Yak
5. Marine water (e) Monkey
  (f) Whale

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Grassland (b) Deer
2. Desert (a) Camel
3. Mountain (d) Yak
4. Freshwater (c) Duck
5. Marine water (f) Whale

Page No 123:

Question E:

Write True (T) or False (F) against the following statements in the given brackets:
1. Plants grow for a definite period of time. ( )
2. The elimination of waste from the body is known as excretion. ( )
3. The plants living in water are called xerophytes. ( )
4. Animals reproduce by laying eggs or by giving birth to babies. ( )
5. Habitats and adaptations do not have any relationship.

Answer:

1. False
Plants grow throughout their life.

2. True

3. False
The plants living in water are called hydrophytes.

4. True

5. False
Habitats and adaptations do have relationship.



Page No 124:

Question A.1:

Name three abiotic components of our environment.

Answer:

Soil, temperature and air are the three abiotic components of our environment.

Page No 124:

Question A.2:

Name three types of terrestrial habitat.

Answer:

The three types of terrestrial habitat are:
(a) Desert habitat
(b) Grassland habitat
(c) Mountain and polar habitat

Page No 124:

Question A.3:

How will you define stimulus?

Answer:

Stimulus is defined as an action that elicits a response from a living thing. For example, we pull our hand immediately if we touch a hot object. In this reaction, heat is stimulus and pulling of hand is response.

Page No 124:

Question A.4:

Which group of animals have spindle-shaped, streamlined body?

Answer:

Fishes have spindle-shaped, streamlined body. This allows them to swim in water. 

Page No 124:

Question A.5:

Write the names of two types of aquatic habitats.

Answer:

The two types of aquatic habitats are:
(a) Freshwater habitat
(b) Marine habitat

Page No 124:

Question A.6:

What are the biotic components of our environment?

Answer:

Plants and animals are the biotic components of our environment.

Page No 124:

Question A.7:

Write one characteristic of an amphibian animal.

Answer:

Amphibians can live both on land and in water, for example, frogs.

Page No 124:

Question B.1:

What are the main characteristics of living organisms?

Answer:

The main characteristics of living organisms are:
(a) Definite shape and size: They have a definite shape and size that change as the organism grows.
(b) Growth and development: They show growth and development.
(c) Reproduction: They give birth to young ones by reproduction.
(d) Consciousness: They have an inherent capability to sense their surroundings or environment and respond to these environmental stimuli.
(e) Death: It is a permanent feature of all living organisms.

Page No 124:

Question B.2:

Why is the process of respiration necessary for all living beings?

Answer:

Respiration is necessary in living organisms as it provides energy by breaking down the food molecules in the body. This energy is used by living organisms to perform day-to-day activities like moving, running, eating, etc. Without respiration, living organisms will not get energy.

Page No 124:

Question B.3:

How do desert plants conserve water in their body?

Answer:

Desert plants have the following adaptations to conserve water in their body:
(a) In desert plants, leaves are modified into spines to reduce the loss of water through transpiration. Stem becomes green and performs photosynthesis, e.g., cactus.
(b) The leaves of desert plants are coated with thick cuticle to check the loss of water.
(c) Desert plants have extensive root systems with numerous root hairs that go deep into the soil in search of water.

Page No 124:

Question B.4:

Why are the eyes of deers located on the side of the head

Answer:

Deer are herbivores. They are preyed upon by carnivores such as tiger, lion, jackal, fox. Their eyes are located on the side of the head so that they can look in all directions and know about the danger from carnivores.

Page No 124:

Question B.5:

What is the difference between biotic and abiotic components?

Answer:

Biotic Components Abiotic Components
These are living components of the environment. These are non-living components of the environment.
Plants and animals are biotic components. Abiotic components include light, air, temperature, humidity, soil, etc.

Page No 124:

Question B.6:

How do living things reproduce?

Answer:

Living things reproduce either sexually or asexually. Animals reproduce by laying eggs (for example, hen, snake) or by giving birth to young ones (for example, man, cow sheep, goat). Plants reproduce through seeds. Some plants can reproduce from their stems, cuttings, roots or leaves (vegetative reproduction). 

Page No 124:

Question B.7:

What is acclimatisation?

Answer:

Acclimatisation refers to small changes that occur in the body of a single organism over short periods, to overcome problems due to changes in the surroundings. For example, a person living in plains breathes faster when he goes on high mountains. However, after a few days, his body adjusts to the changed conditions on the high mountains and he starts breathing in a normal manner.



Page No 125:

Question 1:

Why do trees on hills have cones instead of flowers?

Answer:

Trees on hills have cones so that when snow falls on them, their reproductive structure does not get damaged. Cones are woody and thus protect the reproductive structure of trees. They do not get damaged by the falling snow. Flowers, on the other hand, are delicate structures; they get damaged by the falling snow. 

Page No 125:

Question 2:

The clouds move in the sky and even grow in size. Are they living or non-living things? Give reasons.

Answer:

Clouds are non-living things because merely satisfying two criteria does not mean that clouds are living. Clouds cannot breathe, cannot excrete, cannot reproduce and do not need food which are the essential characteristics of living beings.

Page No 125:

Question C.1:

What is adaptation? How does it differ from acclimatisation?

Answer:

Adaptation is the development of characteristics that help an organism to survive in a particular environment.
 

Adaptation Acclimatisation
Long-lived Short-lived
It is inherited through useful variations. It cannot be inherited.

Page No 125:

Question C.2:

Write four adaptations of a camel to survive in a desert.

Answer:

Camels live in hot and dry deserts. To cope with the life of desert, they have following adaptations:
(a) Their humps store fat to tide over food shortage.
(b) They excrete very little urine to reduce loss of water.
(c) They can raise their body temperature to reduce the feeling of hotness.
(d) They can drink large quantity of water at once.

Page No 125:

Question C.3:

How is fish adapted for aquatic life?

Answer:

Adaptations of fish that help it to live in water:
(a) The body of a fish is spindle-shaped and streamlined which allows least resistance while moving in water.
(b) The body of fish is provided with waterproof covering of scales. 
(c) The body of fish is slimy because of the presence of mucous coating that reduces water tension.
(d) Fins are present in fish for movement such as swimming and changing direction.

Page No 125:

Question C.4:

Differentiate between hydrophytes and xerophytes.

Answer:

Hydrophytes Xerophytes
Grow in water Grow in desert
Poorly developed root system Well developed root system
Tissues have air spaces to keep the plant float. No air spaces are present in the tissues.
Stems are usually long, hollow and light. Stem becomes thick and fleshy for conserving water.

Page No 125:

Question C.5:

How is a lion adapted to live in grasslands?

Answer:

Lion has following adaptations to live in grasslands:
(a) Lion has long claws in the front legs. These claws can be withdrawn inside the toes.
(b) The light brown colour of lion helps it to hide in the dry grassland when it hunts for prey.
(c) The eyes are located in front of the face to allow the lion to have a correct idea about the location of its prey.

Page No 125:

Question C.6:

Differentiate between terrestrial habitats and aquatic habitats.

Answer:

Terrestrial habitat Aquatic habitat
It includes habitat of all organisms that live and propagate on land. It includes habitat of organisms that live and propagate in water.
It is of three types: desert, grassland, and mountains and polar. It is of two types: freshwater and marine.
Organisms are adapted to breathe oxygen present in air. Organisms are adapted to breathe oxygen dissolved in water.

Page No 125:

Question C.7:

How living things differ from non-living things? Show it in a tabular form.

Answer:

Living Things Non-Living Things
Living things are made up of cells. Non-living things do not have cellular structure.
Living things respond to the environment in which they live. Non-living things do not respond.
Living things reproduce. Non-living things do not reproduce.
Living things respire. Non-living things do not respire.
Living things excrete. Non-living things do not excrete.
Living things take birth and die after sometime. Non-living things do not take birth; they do not die.

Page No 125:

Question C.8:

In what way biotic and abiotic components depend on each other?

Answer:

Abiotic components such as soil, air and water provide nutrients to biotic components such as plants. Plants prepare food for animals. When plants and animals die, their bodies are decomposed into simpler substances by microbes. These simpler substances are nutrients that are put back into the soil. These nutrients are again absorbed by plants and the whole life cycle is repeated again and again. Hence, biotic and abiotic components depend on each other.

Page No 125:

Question C.9:

How is a deer adapted to live in grasslands?

Answer:

Deer have following adaptations to live in grasslands:
(a) They have strong teeth for chewing stems of hard plants that are found in forests and grasslands.
(b) They have long ears to hear the movements of predators.
(c) Their eyes are located on the side of the head to enable them to look in all directions for danger.
(d) They run very fast which enables them to run away from predators.



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