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#### Question A:

Solve the following crossword puzzle:
Figure

Across
1. SI unit of mass
3. It is a non-standard unit of measurement
4. Headquarters of National Physical Laboratory

Down
1. SI unit of temperature
2. SI unit for length
3. Motion of a pin wheel #### Question B.1:

Periodic motion can be used to measure
(a) time
(b) length
(c) speed
(d) mass

(a) time
A periodic motion repeats after fixed interval of time. Hence, it can be used to measure time.

#### Question B.2:

1/100 metre is equal to
(a) 1 centimetre
(b) 10 decametre
(c) 10 millimetre
(d) 0.1 decametre

(a) 1 centimetre

1 metre = 100 centimetre
Therefore,
1/100 metre = 1 centimetre

#### Question B.3:

March past of soldiers in a parade is an example of
(a) periodic motion
(b) rectilinear motion
(c) rotational motion
(d) circular motion

(b) rectilinear motion

Soldiers during a march past in a parade move in a straight path. Hence, march past is an example of rectilinear motion.

#### Question B.4:

Height of a person is 1.65 m. Its height in mm is
(a) 165 mm
(b) 1650 mm
(c) 1.65 mm
(d) 0.165 mm

(b) 1650 mm
We know that:
1 m = 1000 mm
Therefore,
1.65 m = 1.65 ☓ 1000
= 1650 mm

#### Question 1:

List the kinds of motion a mosquito has across the room.

The kinds of motion a mosquito has across the room are:
(a) Rectilinear motion
(b) Circular motion
(c) Periodic motion of its wings

#### Question 2:

Rohan has a piece of cloth that measures 3.5 metres. How many smaller pieces can he make of each measuring 50 cm in length?

Length of whole cloth piece = 3.5 m
= 350 cm (as 1 m = 100 cm = 3.5 ☓ 100 = 350 cm)

Length of smaller cloth piece = 50 cm

Number of smaller cloth pieces made from the whole cloth piece

#### Question B.5:

Which is incorrect among that following?
(a) rest and motion are relative terms
(b) motion along a straight line is called rectilinear motion
(c) earth rotating around the sun shows circular motion and periodic motion
(d) a rotating wheel of a car shows circular motion

(d) a rotating wheel of a car shows circular motion
A rotating wheel shows rotatory motion as it rotates around the axis, which passes through the centre of the wheel.

#### Question B.6:

Which of the following is a combination of rectilinear and rotatory motion?
(a) a rolling ball
(b) a branch of a tree moving to and fro
(c) the surface of a table being played
(d) heartbeat of a healthy person

(a) a rolling ball
A rolling ball rotates around the axis passing through it. It also moves in a straight line. Hence, it has both rectilinear and rotatory motion.

#### Question C:

Fill in the blanks:
1. A pendulum undergoes ............................. motion.
2. The motion of the earth around the sun is ............................. in nature.
3. SI unit of length is ............................. .
4. Five kilometre is same as ............................. m.
5. Motion of a child on a swing is ............................. .

1. A pendulum undergoes periodic motion.

2. The motion of the earth around the sun is circular and periodic in nature.

3. SI unit of length is metre.

4. Five kilometre is same as 5000 m.

5. Motion of a child on a swing is periodic motion .

#### Question D:

Match the items is Column A with the items in Column B:

 Column A Column B 1. Pendulum (a) Kelvin 2. Length (b) Kilogram 3. Time (c) Metre 4. Mass (d) Periodic motion 5. Temperature (e) Second

Column A Column B
1. Pendulum (d) Periodic motion
2. Length
 (c) Metre
3. Time (e) Second
4. Mass (b) Kilogram
5. Temperature (a) Kelvin

#### Question E:

Write True (T) or False (F) against the following statements in the given brackets:
1. Periodic motion is that which repeats itself after regular intervals of time. ( )
2. Metre is the standard unit of length. ( )
3. Motion in a straight line is called rectilinear motion. ( )
4. Motion of the needle of a sewing machine is circular motion. ( )
5. Motion of wheel of a bicycle is rectilinear. ( )
6. An object can have more than one type of motion. ( )

1. True (T)

2. True (T)

3. True (T)

4. False (F)
Motion of the needle of a sewing machine is periodic motion.

5. False (F)
Motion of wheel of a bicycle is circular motion.

6. True (T)

#### Question F:

Give one word for the following:
1. Motion of surface to table being played ......................... .
2. Length between the shoulder and finger ......................... .
3. 1000 mm = ......................... m.
4. Place where standard units are maintained in India ......................... .
5. Distance of 2.6 m is same as ......................... m ......................... cm.
6. Hands of a clock have ......................... as well as ......................... motion.

1. Motion of surface to tabla being played Periodic
2. Length between the shoulder and finger Cubit/arm length
3. 1000 mm = 1 m
4. Place where standard units are maintained in India National Physical Laboratory
5. Distance of 2.6 m is same as 2.6 m 260 cm.
6. Hands of a clock have periodic as well as rotatory motion.

#### Question 3:

Does motion produce sound? If yes, give an example.

Yes, motion produces sound. For example, sound of mosquito buzzing comes due to the motion of its wings.

#### Question 4:

You do not use an elastic measuring tape to measure distance. Why?

We do not use an elastic measuring tape to measure distance because it will give different values on different measurements of same object, depending on how much is the tape stretched.

#### Question 5:

A 15 cm scale has one end broken. How would you use it to measure the length of a thread 3.6 cm long? Draw a diagram to explain the same.

To measure 3.6 cm from a broken scale, put the first end of the thread to coincide at any other reading on scale, say the 10 cm mark. Note the point where the other end of the thread coincides with the scale reading, say 13.6 cm.

Length of thread = 13.6 cm $-$ 10 cm
= 3.6 cm #### Question A.1:

What do you mean by rest?

Rest refers to the state of a body when it does not change its position with respect to a reference stationary object.

#### Question A.2:

What do you understand by motion?

Motion refers to the state of a body when it continuously changes its position with respect to a stationary reference object.

#### Question A.3:

Define rectilinear motion and give an example?

Rectilinear motion is the motion of a body moving in a straight line, e.g., a stone falling from a height.

#### Question A.4:

What is a circulatory motion? Give an example.

Circular motion is the motion of a body moving along a circular path, along the circumference of a circle.
Example: Motion of the blades of a fan

#### Question A.5:

What do you mean by the length of an object?

By the length of an object, we mean to say how long is it.
For example, a classroom of length six metres means that the classroom is six metres long.

#### Question A.6:

Name the SI unit of length.

The SI unit of length is metre.

#### Question A.7:

What is meant by periodic motion?

When the motion of an object keeps repeating itself at regular intervals of time, it is said to be a periodic motion. Example: Motion of a pendulum clock

#### Question B.1:

Distinguish between rest and motion.

 Rest Motion A body is said to be at rest when it does not change its position with respect to a reference stationary object. A body is said to be in motion when it changes its position with respect to a reference stationary object.

#### Question B.2:

How will you measure the length of objects using a scale?

To measure the length of objects using a scale, we should take the following points into consideration:
1. The ruler must be placed parallel to the object whose length is being measured.
2. Eyes should be kept exactly above the point from where the measurement is being taken.
3. The 'zero' mark should be avoided if the ends of the ruler are worn out.

#### Question B.3:

The distance between Radha's home and her school is 3260 m. Express this distance in km.

Distance between Radha's home and her school, in metre = 3260 m
We know that:
1 km = 1000 m
Therefore,
Distance between Radha's home and her school, in kilometre

#### Question B.4:

What is parallax error?

Parallax error refers to an error that occurs due to the wrong position of eyes while taking a reading on measuring scale.

#### Question B.5:

Why are hand span and cubit not used as standard units?

Hand span and cubit are not used as standard units of length because their sizes vary from person to person. So, two different persons may give different measurements for the same length, which is not desirable for a standard unit.

#### Question B.6:

Why can't a footstep be used as a standard unit of length?

Footstep cannot be used as standard unit of length because its measurement varies from person to person which is not desirable. It will always give different measurements of length when measured for different people.

#### Question B.7:

Arrange the following lengths in their decreasing magnitude.
1 metre, 1 centimetre, 1 kilometre, 1 millimetre.

Given lengths in their decreasing magnitude are as follows:
1 kilometre > 1 metre > 1 centimetre > 1 millimetre

#### Question B.8:

While measuring the length of a knitting needle, the reading of the scale at one end is 3.0 cm and at the other end is 33.4 cm. What is the length of the needle?

Reading on the first end of the scale = 3.0 cm
Reading on the last end of the scale = 33.4 cm

Length of the knitting needle = Reading on the last end $-$ Reading on the first end
= 33.4 cm $-$ 3.0 cm
= 30.4 cm

#### Question C.1:

What is the need for measurement? What are standard units and why are they important?

Measurement is needed because it is required to find out accurate length, area, volume or mass of different objects for various purposes.
Standard unit refers to a definite magnitude that is taken as a standard for measuring physical quantities.
Standard units are important because they do not change from person to person and one gets the same measurement irrespective of the person doing the measurement.

#### Question C.2:

What is the standard  unit of length? What is the standard metre rod and where is it kept? In India, who is responsible for maintaning such standards?

The standard unit of length is metre.
A standard metre rod is a rod of one metre in length, approved and stamped by the Department of Weights and Measures.
In India, National Physical Laboratory, Delhi is responsible for maintaining such standards.

#### Question C.3:

How can you measure the length of a curved line? Explain by drawing a suitable diagram. To measure the length of a curved line, we can use a piece of string.

Take some pins and fix them vertically on the curved line wherever the edge of the object changes its direction. Tie a knot on a thread at one end of the object. Pierce a pin through this knot and fix it at one end of the curved edge. Stretch the thread along the pins and get it marked with a pen where it touches the last pin. Measure the length of the thread from its knot to its other end by stretching it along a ruler. This gives an approximate length of the curved line.

#### Question C.4:

Distinguish between periodic and non-periodic motion.

 Periodic motion Non-periodic motion Periodic motion repeats itself after regular intervals of time. Non-periodic motion does not repeat itself after regular intervals of time. For example, the motion of Moon around the Earth, the motion of a pendulum clock For example, blinking of eye, occurrence of earthquakes

#### Question C.5:

Give two examples to explain that a body can show more than one type of motion at hte same time.

The two examples to show that a body can show more than one type of motion at the same time are:

1. The Earth has rotational motion when it moves around its axis and circular motion when it revolves around the Sun.
2. A drill has rotatory motion along its axis and rectilinear motion when making a hole.

#### Question C.6:

Explain any three conventional methods to measure length.

Three conventional methods to measure length are as follows:

1. Hand span/cubit is the length between the tip of the thumb and little finger when stretched.
2. Arm length is the length between the shoulder and middle finger.
3. Footstep is the length between the thumb and heal of the foot.

#### Question C.7:

Give a brief description of the history of transport.