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Page No 85:

Question A:

Solve the following crossword puzzle:
Figure

Across
4. It is the female part of a flower
5. The distance between two nodes on the stem
6. It is the female organ of a flower

Down
1. The flower is borne on this stalk
2. It is a definite point where leaves grow
3. It is the terminal part of the pistil

Answer:



Page No 86:

Question B.1:

Which part of a flower turns into a fruit?
(a) sepals
(b) petals
(c) ovary
(d) none of these

Answer:

(c) ovary

Ovary of a flower turns into a fruit after fertilisation. Ovules turn into seeds.

Page No 86:

Question B.2:

The stalk of the flower is known as
(a) petiole
(b) pedicel
(c) thalamus
(d) rachis

Answer:

(b) pedicel
The stalk of a flower is known as pedicel.

Page No 86:

Question B.3:

Veins are present in
(a) stems
(b) roots
(c) leaves
(d) flowers

Answer:

(c) leaves
Veins are present in leaves.

Page No 86:

Question B.4:

A plant that has hard woody stem is
(a) a herb
(b) a shrub
(c) a tree
(d) a climber

Answer:

(b) a shrub
A shrub is a medium-sized plant with hard and woody stem.

Page No 86:

Question B.5:

The outermost whorl of a flower is
(a) petal
(b) sepal
(c) stamen
(d) pistil

Answer:

(b) sepal
The outermost whorl of a flower is known as sepal. The second whorl inside the sepal is called petal. The third whorl lies inside the petal and is called stamen. The fourth and the last whorl is known as pistil.

Page No 86:

Question B.6:

Male reproductive part of a flower is
(a) stamen
(b) pistil
(c) calyx
(d) corolla

Answer:

(a) Stamen
Male reproductive part of flower is known as stamen.

Page No 86:

Question B.7:

Female reproductive part of a flower is
(a) stamen
(b) calyx
(c) pistil
(d) corolla

Answer:

(c) pistil
Female reproductive part of a flower is called pistil or carpel. Each pistil consists of an ovary, style and stigma.

Page No 86:

Question B.8:

Maize plant has
(a) parallel venation
(b) reticulate venation
(c) both types of venation
(d) no venation

Answer:

(a) parallel venation
Maize is a monocot. Monocots have parallel venation.

Page No 86:

Question C:

Fill in the blanks:
1. ...................... is the male part of the flower.
2. Ovule grows into ...................... on fertilisation.
3. Leaves are green as they contain ...................... .
4. The wheat plant has ...................... venation.
5. Plants with fibrous roots have ...................... venation.

Answer:

1. Stamen is the male part of the flower.
2. Ovule grows into seed on fertilisation.
3. Leaves are green as they contain chlorophyll.
4. The wheat plant has parallel venation.
5. Plants with fibrous roots have parallel venation.

Page No 86:

Question D:

Match the items is Column A with the items in Column B

Column A Column B
1. Calyx (a) Pistil
2. Corolla (b) Stamens
3. Androecium (c) Sepals
4. Gynoecim (d) Ovule
5. Seeds (e) Petals
  (f) Bud

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Calyx (c) Sepals 
2. Corolla               (e) Petals
3. Androecium (b) Stamens
4. Gynoecium (a) Pistil 
5. Seeds (d) Ovule

Page No 86:

Question E:

Write True (T) or False (F) against the following statements in the given brackets:
1. The stem absorbs water and minerals from the soil.
2. The sunflower plant is a shrub.
3. Grasses have fibrous root system.
4. Food is stored in the leaves of a plant.
5. Most flowers have colourful sepals.

Answer:

1. False
Root absorbs water and mineral from the soil.

2. False
Sunflower plant is a herb.

3. True

4. False
Food is generally stored in the stem of the plant.

5. False
Most flowers have colourful petals.



Page No 87:

Question 1:

Tomato, okra (lady finger), bell paper (capsicum) are included in the list of vegetables. But these are actually fruits. Find out the real difference between fruits and vegetables. Name two real vegetables and two false fruits.

Answer:

Fruits develop from ovules, while vegetables develop from parts other than ovules. 
Carrot and potato are true vegetables, while apple and pomegranate are false fruits.

Page No 87:

Question 2:

Most of these leaves have flat and broad surface. Why?

Answer:

The main function of leaves is to carry out photosynthesis with the help of sunlight. For this, they require to capture sunlight. Maximum capture of sunlight is possible only when the leaves have flat and broad surface which provides a greater area.

Page No 87:

Question 3:

It is easier to pull out a wheat plant than mango plant. Explain why?

Answer:

It is easier to pull out a wheat plant than a mango plant because wheat plants have fibrous root system. Fibrous roots do not penetrate deep into the soil. Hence, it is easy to pull out the plant.  In case of a mango plant, tap root system is present. Tap roots penetrate deep into the soil which makes it almost impossible uproot the plant. 



Page No 88:

Question A.1:

What are the two main systems found in plants?

Answer:

The two main systems of plants are root and shoot systems.

Page No 88:

Question A.2:

What are the two kinds of root systems?

Answer:

The two kinds of root systems are tap root system and fibrous root system.

Page No 88:

Question A.3:

How many whorls are present in a complete flower?

Answer:

In a complete flower, four whorls are present. These are sepals, petals, stamens and pistils.

Page No 88:

Question A.4:

Name two plants with reticulate venation.

Answer:

Reticulate venation is the characteristic feature of dicots. The two plants with reticulate venation are peepal and mango. 

Page No 88:

Question A.5:

Name two plants which have week stems.

Answer:

Herbs have weak stems, e.g., mustard and radish.

Page No 88:

Question A.6:

Write the main parts of the shoot system.

Answer:

The main parts of the shoot system are the main stem, leaves, buds, branches, flowers, fruits and seeds.

Page No 88:

Question A.7:

Which is the most attractive part of a flowering plant?

Answer:

The most attractive part of a flowering plant is flower. It is because flowers contain petals which are generally bright coloured and fragrant. Petals usually attract the insect pollinators and help in pollination. 

Page No 88:

Question A.8:

Which part of a plant absorbs water and minerals from the soil?

Answer:

The roots of a plant absorb water and minerals from the soil.

Page No 88:

Question A.9:

Write two main functions of the root.

Answer:

The two main function of root are:
(a) Anchorage: Roots anchor or fix the plant to the soil and provide mechanical support to the aerial part of the plant.
(b) Absorption: Roots absorb water and minerals from the soil in almost all the land plants. 

Page No 88:

Question A.10:

Which part of a plant bears leaves, flowers and fruits?

Answer:

The shoot system of a plant bears leaves, flowers and fruits.

Page No 88:

Question B.1:

What are the main parts of a flower?

Answer:

The main parts of a flower are pedicel, thalamus, calyx or sepals, corolla (petals), androecium (stamens) and gynoecium (pistil).

Page No 88:

Question B.2:

State three main functions of root.

Answer:

The three main functions of root are:
(a) Anchorage: Roots anchor or fix the plant to the soil and provide mechanical support to the aerial part of the plant.
(b) Absorption: Roots absorb water and minerals from the soil in almost all the land plants.
(c) Transport of water and minerals: Upward movement of absorbed water and minerals is done by roots.

Page No 88:

Question B.3:

What are the functions of vein network in a leaf?

Answer:

Vein network in a leaf allows the transport of water, minerals and food to the distant parts of lamina. Vein network also supports delicate cells of lamina so that the lamina remains in stretched condition for optimum function.

Page No 88:

Question B.4:

What is pollination?

Answer:

Transfer of pollen grains from anther of the stamen to stigma of the carpel is called pollination. 

Page No 88:

Question B.5:

How do plants with weak stem survive in nature?

Answer:

In plants with weak stems, the stem usually climbs up the support with the help of clinging structures called tendrils. Tendrils are specialised climbing organs that are capable of growing spirally around a support and help the shoot to climb up.  

Page No 88:

Question B.6:

What is transpiration?

Answer:

Loss of water in the form of vapours from the leaves of a plant is termed as transpiration. It occurs through specialised pores present in the leaves called stomata.

Page No 88:

Question B.7:

What is the difference between creepers and climbers?

Answer:

 

Creepers Climbers
Creepers grow horizontally along the soil. Climbers usually climb up the support with the help of some clinging structures.
Fibre-like roots arise from the base of the creepers. These roots get fixed and grow further. They do not produce fibre-like roots. 

Page No 88:

Question B.8:

Give difference between root system and shoot system.

Answer:

Root system Shoot system
It grows underground. It grows above the ground.
It grows from the radicle of the embryo of a seed. It grows from the plumule of the embryo of a seed.
It provides anchorage, helps in the absorption of water and minerals.   It transports water and minerals from the roots to the leaves, flowers and fruits. It also transports food from the leaves to the roots.

Page No 88:

Question B.9:

Is it possible to grow plants without sunlight?

Answer:

It is not possible to grow plants without sunlight because they are autotrophic organisms and manufacture their own food through photosynthesis. To carry out photosynthesis, plants require sunlight. 

Page No 88:

Question B.10:

Describe an activity to show that stems conduct water and minerals.

Answer:

Gently pull out a plant with white flowers from the soil. Wash its roots and cut the roots underwater. Dip the lower end of the cut stem in a bottle containing water, to which a few drops of red ink have been added. Leave the plant undisturbed for a few hours and observe the plant carefully. You will notice that the colour of the white flower changes to red. Remember that you have already cut the roots of the plant. It means that stem conducts red ink from water to the flower. This activity shows that stem conducts water and minerals upwards.

Page No 88:

Question C.1:

What is a leaf and what role does it play in the life of a plant?

Answer:

The leaf is a green, flat, thin, lateral structure borne on the stem. The green colour of leaf is due to the presence of chlorophyll that helps plants to synthesise their food. Hence, leaf prepares food for all the other parts of the plant. Leaves also maintain the temperature of a plant by loosing water in the form of vapours by the process of transpiration and they also help in respiration and gaseous exchange for photosynthesis through stomata.

Page No 88:

Question C.2:

With the help of a neat, labelled diagram describe the two basis root system found in plants.

Answer:

The two types of roots systems found in plants are:
(a) Tap root system: Tap roots arise from the radicle of the embryo. Tap roots are deep-seated and divide themselves into branches to give rise to secondary roots. The branches of secondary roots are called tertiary roots. Tap root system is mostly found in dicot plants.

(b) Fibrous root system: In this system, the primary root is short-lived and is replaced by a cluster of thin fibre-like roots. These roots are called fibrous roots. These roots spread from a common point and are about the same size. These roots are generally found in monocot plants.



Page No 89:

Question C.3:

Write about the usefulness of flowers for human beings.

Answer:

Uses of flowers for human beings:

  • Flowers of some plants such as rose, jasmine, lavender yield perfumes.
  • Flowers are grown in houses, parks, gardens and roadsides for their pleasant colours, beautiful shapes and sweet smell.
  • Flower buds of some plants yield spices, e.g., clove.

Page No 89:

Question C.4:

Describe an activity to show the process of transpiration in plants.

Answer:

Take a potted plant and cover it with a polythene bag. Observe it after a few hours. You will notice a few droplets of water in the polythene bag. This shows that the leaves of the plant are showing transpiration. Since, the plant is covered with a polythene bag, the water cannot escape and hence, it condenses to form droplets in the polythene bag.

Page No 89:

Question C.5:

Describe an activity to show that roots help in absorption.

Answer:

Take a pot and fill it with soil. Take four plants from the nursery and cut the roots of two plants so that only the tender stems and some leaves remain. Now, put these four plants in the pot (two with roots and two without roots) and add water to the pot. You will observe that the two plants with cut roots dry up and die, whereas the other two plants with intact roots are healthy. This experiment proves that roots help in absorption of water and minerals from the soil.

Page No 89:

Question C.6:

Draw a flower showing the male and female parts with its labelling.

Answer:


 
                                                
Stamen (Androecium)                       Pistil (Gynoecium)

Page No 89:

Question C.7:

Define a leaf by drawing a labelled diagram of its parts.

Answer:

Leaf is a flat, thin, green, lateral structure borne on the stem at a node. It usually has a stalk called petiole and a pair of very small leaves at the base of the petiole called stipules. The broad expanded green part of the leaf is called lamina, which has a thick midrib at the centre. On either side of the midrib, thin veins branch out to form a network of veins or veinlets. 

Page No 89:

Question C.8:

What is venation? Explain its types.

Answer:

Venation refers to the pattern of distribution of the veins in the lamina of a leaf. Two types of venation are found in plants:
(a) Reticulate: The veins are irregularly distributed to form a network. This type of venation is a characteristic of dicots such as peepal and mango.
(b) Parallel: In this type of venation, the veins run parallel to each other and no network is formed. This type of venation is a characteristic of monocots such as wheat, rice, maize and grass. 

Page No 89:

Question C.9:

Write the various functions of stems.

Answer:

Various functions of stems are as follows:
(a) Stem bears leaves and holds them in a position so that it provides maximum sunlight.
(b) Stem transports water and minerals from roots to leaves, flowers and fruits.
(c) Stem also transports food from leaves to other parts of the plant.
(d) Stem holds the flowers in such a position that it facilitates pollination and fertilisation.
(e) Stem also bears fruits and seeds.
(f) In many plants, stems serve as means of vegetative propagation.

Page No 89:

Question C.10:

What do you understand by vegetative propagation of a leaf? Explain it by giving an appropriate example.

Answer:

Growing new plant by using a leaf as a vegetative part is known as vegetative propagation of a leaf.
For example, some plants such as Bryophyllum develop buds on their leaves. These buds develop new small plantlets with adventitious roots along their margins.



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