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Page No 45:

Question A:

Solve the following crossword puzzle:
Figure

Across
2. It is a shine on the surface of all metals
3. The process of placing similar things together.
5. Glass is a  ...................... material

Down
1. The liquids which get mixed with water completely
4. Wood is a ........................ substance

Answer:



Page No 46:

Question B.1:

Which one of the following is insoluble in water?
(a) alcohol
(b) vinegar
(c) coconut oil
(d) sugar

Answer:

(c) coconut oil

Coconut oil is insoluble in water.

Page No 46:

Question B.2:

Which of the following is a lustrous object?
(a) gold
(b) chair
(c) table
(d) stool

Answer:

(a) gold

Gold is a metal with lustrous surface.

Page No 46:

Question B.3:

Which one of the following will sink in water?
(a) wood
(b) plastic mug
(c) knife
(d) dry leaves

Answer:

(c) knife

Knife is heavier than water; therefore, it will sink in water.

Page No 46:

Question B.4:

Which of the following is an example of miscible liquid?
(a) mustard oil and water
(b) alcohol and water
(c) coconut oil and water
(d) diesel and water

Answer:

(b) alcohol and water

Alcohol dissolves in water completely. Therefore, it is an example of miscible liquid.

Page No 46:

Question B.5:

Which one of the following has a hard surface?
(a) sponge
(b) pillow
(c) stone
(d) mattress

Answer:

(c) stone

Sponge, pillow and mattress have a soft surface but stone has a hard surface.

Page No 46:

Question B.6:

Oiled paper and muddy water are
(a) transparent
(b) translucent
(c) opaque
(d) none of these

Answer:

(b) translucent

Oiled paper and muddy water are translucent materials through which light can pass partially.

Page No 46:

Question C:

Fill in the blanks:
1. The process of grouping things on the basis of some common properties is called ....................
2. Mustard oil is ...................  in water.
3. Oxygen is ...................  in water.
4. ...................  and ................... are lustrous metals.
5. ...................  and ...................  are opaque materials.

Answer:

1. The process of grouping things on the basis of some common properties is called classification.

2. Mustard oil is insoluble in water.

3. Oxygen is soluble in water.

4. Gold and silver are lustrous metals.

5. Wood and stone are opaque materials.

Page No 46:

Question D:

Match the items is Column A with the items in Column B

Column A Column B
1. Transparent (a) Sugar
2. Opaque (b) Gold
3. Translucent (c) Wood
4. Lustre (d) Butter paper
5. Soluble (e) Window
  (f) Sand

Answer:

Column A Column B
1. Transparent (e) Window
2. Opaque (c) Wood
3. Translucent (d) Butter paper
4. Lustre (b) Gold
5. Soluble (a) Sugar

Page No 46:

Question E:

Write True (T) or False (F) against the following statements in the given brackets:
1. Tree is an opaque substance. ( )
2. All gases are insoluble in water. ( )
3. All things are made up of materials. ( )
4. Kerosene is soluble in water. ( )
5. A piece of wood floats on water. ( )

Answer:

1.  True.

2.  False.
Some gases are soluble in water and some are insoluble.

3.  True.

4.  False.
Kerosene is insoluble in water.

5.  True.



Page No 47:

Question 1:

Why does silver jewellery look dull after a few months?

Answer:

Silver jewellery looks dull after a few months because it loses its shiny surface due to its exposure to air and moisture.

Page No 47:

Question 2:

Which of the following liquids from a single layer on mixing and why is it so? Water and kerosene of water and glycerine.

Answer:

Glycerine forms a single layer on mixing with water because it is miscible with water, whereas kerosene forms a separate layer because it is immiscible with water.

Page No 47:

Question 3:

Why are silver and gold used to make jewellery?

Answer:

Silver and gold are used to make jewellery because of their lustrous property. Silver and gold shine in free state. This shiny property makes them suitable for jewellery.



Page No 48:

Question A.1:

On what basis do we classify things around us in different groups?

Answer:

Things are classified on the basis of their shapes, sizes, colours and properties.
Some materials have similarities between them and therefore they come under one group. However, the materials of two different groups have different properties.
Things can also be classified on the basis of their various physical properties like appearance, hardness, roughness, solubility in water, transparency, etc.

Page No 48:

Question A.2:

Name two things that are transparent.

Answer:

Glass and water are transparent things.

Page No 48:

Question A.3:

What is the need for grouping objects?

Answer:

Grouping of objects makes the study of a large number of objects of different types easy, convenient and simple. Also, after grouping the objects, their study can be done in a systematic way.

Page No 48:

Question A.4:

What type of surfaces do rough materials have?

Answer:

Rough materials have irregular surfaces with bumps or ridges.

Page No 48:

Question A.5:

Name two materials which float on water.

Answer:

Edible oil and petrol are the two materials that can float on water.

Page No 48:

Question A.6:

Write the names of two opaque materials.

Answer:

Wood and metals are two opaque materials.

Page No 48:

Question A.7:

Why does mustard oil not mix well with water?

Answer:

Mustard oil does not mix well with water and forms a separate layer with water because it is an immiscible liquid.

Page No 48:

Question B.1:

Define classification. Why is it essential to classify things?

Answer:

Grouping of things with similar properties is called classification. We can classify different things based on whether they are living or non-living, metals or non-metals. It is also possible to classify objects based on their size, solubility in water, etc. 
It is essential to classify things because classification makes the study of large number of things of different materials simple, easy and convenient.

Page No 48:

Question B.2:

What is the difference between a rough and a smooth material?

Answer:

Rough materials Smooth materials
Rough materials have bumps or ridges on their surfaces. Smooth materials do not have such bumps on their surfaces.
For example, rock is a rough material. For example, petal of flowers is a smooth material.

Page No 48:

Question B.3:

Differentiate between miscible and immiscible liquids

Answer:

Miscible liquids Immiscible liquids
Liquids that mix with each other are called as miscible liquids. Liquids that do not mix with each other are called as immiscible liquids.
For example, milk and water are miscible liquids. For example, coconut oil and water are immiscible liquids.

Page No 48:

Question B.4:

How will you distinguish between opaque and translucent materials?

Answer:

Translucent materials Opaque materials
If light falling on a object partially passes through it, it is termed as a translucent material. If no light is able to pass through an object, it is called an opaque material.
Examples: Butter paper, frosted glass, muddy water, etc. Examples: Wood, iron, aluminium, etc.

Page No 48:

Question B.5:

Write any three physical properties of matter.

Answer:

The three physical properties of matter are:
(1) Hardness: Matter can be hard, which cannot be compressed, or soft, which can be compressed. For example, stones and rocks are hard, while pillows and mattresses are soft.
(2) Solubility: Matter can be soluble or insoluble in water. For example, sugar, common salt, glucose and vinegar are soluble in water, while kerosene oil, petrol and edible oils are insoluble in water and therefore form a separate layer on water.
(3) Appearance or Lustre: Matter can have a shiny (lustrous) or non-lustrous surface. For example, metals like gold, silver and aluminium have a shiny surface, while wood and rubber have a non-lustrous surface.

Page No 48:

Question B.6:

Give two examples of each-gases soluble in water and gases insoluble in water.

Answer:

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are two gases that are soluble in water.
Methane and nitrogen are two gases that are insoluble in water.

Page No 48:

Question B.7:

Name two materials which are used in making of a bag and a chair.

Answer:

Two materials that are used in the making of a bag are leather and jute.
Two materials that are used in the making of a chair are wood and plastic.

Page No 48:

Question C.1:

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are soluble in water. What is the importance of each of these gases in nature?

Answer:

Oxygen dissolved in water helps aquatic plants and animals in respiration. Dissolved oxygen helps them to breath and survive in water.
Carbon dioxide dissolved in water helps aquatic plants to do photosynthesis and prepare their food.

Page No 48:

Question C.2:

Describe an activity to show that edible oil is an immiscible liquid.

Answer:

Take a glass tumbler and fill it half with water. Add a few drops of edible oil in it. Shake it well and wait for five minutes. You will observe that the edible oil forms a layer over the surface of water. Hence, edible oil does not dissolve in water. This shows that edible oil is an immiscible liquid.

Page No 48:

Question C.3:

On what basis is selection of material for making objects done? Explain it with an example.

Answer:

Selection of materials for making objects is done on the basis of their nature and properties. Objects can be made from a single material or a combination of different materials. For example, buckets are made of plastic because plastic holds water without allowing it to pass through. Also, plastic does not get damaged by storing water in it even for a long time.



Page No 49:

Question C.4:

Describe an activity to show the test for solubility of following substances.
salt, sugar, sand, sawdust, glucose

Answer:

Take five clean test tubes and mark them as A, B, C, D and E. Fill each tube by more than half with water. Add small amounts of salt, sugar, sand, sawdust and glucose, respectively in A, B, C, D and E. Mix the contents and wait for a few minutes. Now, observe all the test tubes. You will notice that salt, sugar and glucose are completely dissolved in water, whereas sand and sawdust are not dissolved in water.
This activity concludes that salt, sugar and glucose are soluble in water, whereas sand and sawdust are insoluble in water.

Page No 49:

Question C.5:

What are lustrous and non-lustrous materials?

Answer:

Lustrous materials are those materials that have shiny surfaces. Lustrous materials include metals like silver, gold, iron and aluminium.
Non-lustrous materials are those materials that do not have shine on their surfaces. Non-lustrous materials include wood, bricks, etc.

Page No 49:

Question C.6:

Why does an iron nail sink in water but a leaf does not? Give reason for it?

Answer:

Materials that are lighter than water, float over the surface of water, whereas materials that are heavier than water sink in water.
An iron nail sinks in water because it is heavier than water. On the other hand, a leaf is lighter than water; therefore, it does not sink in water and floats on its surface.



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