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Page No 212:

Question A:

Solve the following crossword puzzle:
Figure

Across
2. They are the agents of decomposition
4. It is usually non-biodegradable
5. The process to make new things using waste materials

Down
1. It can be used to produce biogas
3. Solid municipal waste

Answer:



Page No 213:

Question B.1:

Which one of the following is not a garbage?
(a) cow dung
(b) vegetable peelings
(c) carbon dioxide
(d) dry leaves

Answer:

(c) carbon dioxide
Garbage refers to solid waste and carbon dioxide is a gas.

Page No 213:

Question B.2:

We can recycle
(a) biodegradable waste
(b) non-biodegradable waste
(c) both
(d) none of these

Answer:

(b) non-biodegradable waste

Non-biodegradable waste such as glass and plastic can be recycled.

Page No 213:

Question B.3:

Examples of biodegradable waste are
(a) banana peel
(b) books
(c) cotton clothes
(d) all of these

Answer:

(d) all of these

All the items mentioned above can be degraded by the action of microbes; thus, they are examples of biodegradable waste.

Page No 213:

Question B.4:

A worm used in vermicomposting is
(a) red worm
(b) hookworm
(c) tapeworm
(d) none of these

Answer:

(a) red worm

Red worms feed on biodegradable waste and are involved in vermicomposting.

Page No 213:

Question B.5:

Polythene bag, aluminium foil and broken glass are examples of
(a) biodegradable waste
(b) non-biodegradable waste
(c) compost
(d) landfill

Answer:

(b) non-biodegradable waste

Polythene bags, aluminium foil and broken glass cannot be degraded by microbes. They are examples of non-biodegradable waste.

Page No 213:

Question B.6:

Solid non-biodegradable waste is dumped on
(a) landfill
(b) dustbins
(c) roadsides
(d) gardens

Answer:

(a) landfill

Solid non-biodegradable waste is dumped in landfills.

Page No 213:

Question B.7:

Compost is made using
(a) biodegradable waste
(b) non-biodegradable waste
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) none of these

Answer:

(a) biodegradable waste

Compost is made by the decomposition of biodegradable waste.

Page No 213:

Question C:

Fill in the blanks:
1. ............................ and ............................ are biodegradable waste.
2. plastic and iron scrap are the examples of ............................ wastes.
3. Solid municipal waste is known as ............................ .
4. One must avoid using products like ............................ .
5. Glass is a ............................ waste.

Answer:

1. Vegetable peel and paper are biodegradable waste.
2. Plastic and iron scrap are the examples of non-biodegradable wastes.
3. Solid municipal waste is known as garbage.
4. One must avoid using products like plastic.
5. Glass is a non-biodegradable waste.

Page No 213:

Question D:

Write True (T) or False (F) against the following statements in the given brackets:
1. Composting is better than burning. ( )
2. Red worms help in composting. ( )
3. Gaseous waste is also called garbage. ( )
4. Biodegradable wastes are used for making compost. ( )
5. Kabadiwala buys waste from us for recycling. ( )

Answer:

1. True

2. True

3. False
Solid waste is called garbage.

4. True

5. True



Page No 214:

Question 1:

Man is always fascinated towards activities like expeditions to mountains to unveil the mysteries of the world and to discover the unknown. But Sikkim Government has recently banned expedition to the Kanchenjunga, the second highest peak in the world. Can you find out way?

Answer:

The Sikkim Government recently banned expeditions to the Kanchenjunga, the second highest peak in the world, because this peak is considered sacred by the local people. When people take up activities such as expeditions to mountains, they neglect to take care of nature. They throw waste and destroy the natural beauty of places. In order to save the Kanchenjunga from pollution caused by expeditions, the government has banned them.

Page No 214:

Question 2:

Why do food substances wrapped in polythene do not rot?

Answer:

Food substances wrapped in polythene do not rot as polythene protects them from the microbes that rot food.

Page No 214:

Question 3:

Why is the burning of leaves injurious to health?

Answer:

The burning of leaves results in the release of gases that are harmful to health.

Page No 214:

Question 4:

Why is a kabadiwala called 'nature's friend'?

Answer:

A kabadiwala is called 'nature's friend' because he collects wastes from us and transports them for recycling (i.e., for making useful products), thus helping to bring down the amount of waste generated.

Page No 214:

Question E:

What can be the major actions for effective garbage management in and around your school?

Objective Suggested major actions
1. Prevention of plastic wastage a. __________________________
2. Minimization of total garbage generation b. __________________________
3. Recycling and reuse of materials c. __________________________
4. Environment-friendly disposal of garbage d. __________________________

Answer:

Objective Suggested major actions
1. Prevention of plastic wastage a. Avoid using polythene bags to carry lunch boxes.
2. Minimization of total garbage generation b. Try to recycle and reuse materials.
3. Recycling and reuse of materials c. Reuse old clothes as dusters to clean blackboards.
4. Environment-friendly disposal of garbage d. Biodegradable waste can be used for composting.



Page No 216:

Question A.1:

Name three types of wastes.

Answer:

The three types of wastes based on their physical states are solid waste, liquid waste and gaseous waste.

Page No 216:

Question A.2:

How can you recycle glass?

Answer:

Broken glasses, tumblers, etc., are recycled by melting them and then making new glass products from the melted glass.

Page No 216:

Question A.3:

Name some of the sources of domestic waste.

Answer:

Among the sources of domestic waste are kitchen waste (vegetable and fruit peels, leftover food, etc.), sanitary waste and plastic waste.

Page No 216:

Question A.4:

What type of waste can be recycled?

Answer:

Non-biodegradable wastes can be recycled.

Page No 216:

Question A.5:

In what way can cattle dung be recycled?

Answer:

Cattle dung can be recycled by making compost from it. It can also be used to produce biogas.

Page No 216:

Question A.6:

Give two examples of biodegradable waste.

Answer:

Vegetable peels and cow dung are examples of biodegradable waste.

Page No 216:

Question A.7:

What happened when non-biodegradable waste is not handled properly?

Answer:

An improper handling of non-biodegradable waste results in pollution.

Page No 216:

Question A.8:

Why is recycling of waste necessary?

Answer:

Recycling waste is necessary to minimise the amount of waste generated.

Page No 216:

Question A.9:

Name a place situated in Delhi which is built on a landfill.

Answer:

Indraprastha Park in Delhi is built on a landfill.

Page No 216:

Question A.10:

Why is burning of plastic harmful?

Answer:

Burning plastic is harmful because it generates poisonous gases that pollute the environment.

Page No 216:

Question B.1:

What is a landfill and what is its advantage to us?

Answer:

Landfill is a big, low-lying area that is used for disposing off solid waste. Dumping sites have an advantage over other methods of disposing off solid waste such as burning it down in incinerators as burning releases numerous pollutants in the atmosphere, thus causing air pollution.

Page No 216:

Question B.2:

What type of materials can be dumped in a landfill?

Answer:

Solid waste, i.e., garbage, can be dumped in a landfill.

Page No 216:

Question B.3:

State two harmful effects of overuse of plastics.

Answer:

The following are two harmful effects of overusing plastic.
(a) Plastic produces harmful gases on burning.
(b) It chokes drains, which results in an overflow of wastewater.

Page No 216:

Question B.4:

What do you mean by recycling of waste?

Answer:

Recycling waste means using waste as a raw material for the production of new products. For example, cow dung can be used as a raw material for the production of compost or manure.

Page No 216:

Question B.5:

Why do we segregate waste into two types?

Answer:

There are two types of wastes, biodegradable and non-biodegradable, which need different methods of disposal. Thus, waste needs to be segregated into these two types so that it can be disposed off suitably.

Page No 216:

Question B.6:

What can be done to biodegradable waste to make it useful?

Answer:

Biodegradable waste can be recycled into compost, manure or biogas to make it useful.

Page No 216:

Question B.7:

What is vermicomposting?

Answer:

The method of making compost from biodegradable waste by using red worms is called vermicomposting.

Page No 216:

Question B.8:

What do you do with leftover food at home?

Answer:

Leftover food can be consumed after warming, if it is not spoilt or rotten. If spoilt, then it should be dumped in a bin meant for biodegradable wastes, so that it can be recycled and converted into compost or manure.

Page No 216:

Question B.9:

Describe an activity to recycle paper at home.

Answer:

For recycling paper, cut old paper, such as a newspaper, into small pieces. Put these pieces in a bucket of water for a day. Stir the mixture well to make a thick paste. Spread the paste on a wire mesh fixed to a frame. Place a blotting sheet over the paste to soak the extra water. A sheet of paper is formed. Carefully remove it from the wire mesh and keep it in the sun for drying. After drying, the recycled paper is ready for use.

Page No 216:

Question B.10:

What do you mean by incineration of waste?

Answer:

Incinerating wastes is a method of managing non-biodegradable waste in which the waste is burnt and converted into ashes.

Page No 216:

Question C.1:

What is a waste and how is it produced?

Answer:

Waste is any substance that cannot be used in the form it is produced. When any substance loses its value, it becomes waste and is thrown out.
Waste is generated at homes, schools, colleges, hospitals, industries, etc.

Page No 216:

Question C.2:

What is composting and how is this technique useful to a farmer?

Answer:

Composting is the conversion of solid biodegradable waste into manure or compost. This technique is useful to farmers as they can use this manure in their fields to increase the fertility of the soil and the yield of their crops.

Page No 216:

Question C.3:

Why should we avoid using plastic bags?

Answer:

Plastic bags take millions of years to degrade, and if burnt, they produce harmful gases and a foul smell. The excessive use of plastic bags thus generate huge amounts of pollutants. Therefore, the use of plastic bags should be avoided.

Page No 216:

Question C.4:

What are the disadvantages of excessive use of plastics?

Answer:

Plastic is dangerous for the environment. The excessive use of plastic generates great quantities of solid waste, which takes millions of years to degrade. Burning plastic waste produces harmful gases and a foul smell. Plastic bags can choke drains, and if eaten by animals, the animals may choke to death.

Page No 216:

Question C.5:

Explain how vermicomposting is done.

Answer:

Vermicomposting is done by using red worms, which feed on biodegradable waste. The worms do not have teeth but have a special organ for grinding food called the gizzard. The waste is mixed with powdered eggshells to make grinding easy for worms. Vermicomposting needs an ambient temperature and moisture as worms cannot survive extreme temperatures. The compost obtained by this process is an excellent manure for use by farmers.



Page No 217:

Question C.6:

Distinguish between biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes.

Answer:

Biodegradable waste Non-biodegradable waste
It can be decayed by the action of microbes. It cannot be decayed by the action of microbes.
It is less harmful to the environment. It is harmful to the environment.
Examples: Vegetable peel and paper. Examples: Plastic bags and glass.

Page No 217:

Question C.7:

In what way is biodegradable waste useful to us?

Answer:

Recycling biodegradable waste can be useful to us. For example, cow dung can be converted into compost or manure by composting or vermicomposting. The manure thus obtained can be used by farmers in their fields to increase the fertility of the soil. Biodegradable waste is used to generate biogas, which can be used as a fuel for cooking.

Page No 217:

Question C.8:

Why should garbage not be burnt?

Answer:

Burning garbage produces toxic gases and smoke. These gases are hazardous for our health and can cause respiratory diseases. These gases also create environmental problems, leading to air, water and soil pollution. Burning garbage also affects soil fertility.

Page No 217:

Question C.9:

What should we do to minimise overuse of plastics?

Answer:

The following steps must be taken to minimise the overuse of plastic.

  • Limit the dependence on plastic bags
  • While going shopping, carry your own cloth or jute bag
  • Reuse cold-drink plastic bottles at home for storing water
  • In order to save the future generations, say no to plastic



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