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Page No 189:

Question A:

Solve the following crossword puzzle:
Figure

Across
2. Plants release water vapour into atmosphere by this method.
4. It is a universal solvent.

Down
1. It is a cause of water-borne disease.
3. it is water in solid state.

Answer:

Page No 189:

Question B.1:

Plants lose water by the process of
(a) evaporation
(b) condensation
(c) transpiration
(d) precipitation

Answer:

(c) transpiration
Plants lose water through the process of transpiration.

Page No 189:

Question B.2:

It is a type of surface water
(a) rainwater
(b) well water
(c) spring water
(d) none of these

Answer:

(a) rainwater
Rainwater is a type of surface water.

Page No 189:

Question B.3:

Factor/factors affecting evaporation are
(a) surface area
(b) humidity and wind
(c) temperature
(d) all of these

Answer:

(d) all of these

Factors affecting evaporation are surface area, humidity, wind and temperature.

Page No 189:

Question B.4:

Hand pump, tube well and well all are the source of
(a) underground water
(b) sea water
(c) river water
(d) rainwater

Answer:

(a) underground water

Hand pump, tube well and well are the sources of underground water.

 

Page No 189:

Question B.5:

Which one is correct statement?
(a) water is a universal solvent
(b) water act as a regulator of temperature of our body
(c) both of these
(d) none of these

Answer:

(c) both of these

Water is a universal solvent and acts as a temperature regulator for our body.

Page No 189:

Question B.6:

Which one of the following is not the correct way to conserve water?
(a) prevent leakage from taps
(b) prevent outflow of overhead water storage tanks
(c) have only two glass of water in a day
(d) Turn the tap off when it is not in use

Answer:

(c) have only two glasses of water in a day

The body requires around 7-8 glasses of water per day, and consuming less water may cause dehydration. Hence, this is not the correct way of conserving water.



Page No 190:

Question 1:

Clothes take longer to dry of on a humid day. Why?

Answer:

On a humid day, the air is laden with a good percentage of water vapour; hence, the process of evaporation becomes slow, thereby letting the clothes take longer to dry up.

Page No 190:

Question 2:

Why digging of larger number of tube wells is restricted in urban areas?

Answer:

Digging large number of tube wells is restricted in urban areas because they are used to draw out ground water, which further lowers the level of ground water.

Page No 190:

Question 3:

On early winter morning we see drops of water on window glass panes. Why?

Answer:

In an early morning, especially during winters, we find drops of water on the window glass panes due to the process of condensation. The water vapour present in the atmosphere gets condensed to form water droplets.

Page No 190:

Question C:

Fill in the blanks:
1. .............................. water is the purest form of natural water.
2. Change of water into water vapour is called .............................. .
3. Water evaporates .............................. when it is windy.
4. .............................. water is free from suspended impurities.
5. Deficient rain may cause .............................. .

Answer:

1. Rain water is the purest form of natural water.
2. Change of water into water vapour is called evaporation.
3. Water evaporates fast when it is windy.
4. Rain water is free from suspended impurities.
5. Deficient rain may cause drought.

Page No 190:

Question D:

Match the items is Column A with the items in Column B:

Column A Column B
1. Deficient rain (a) River
2. Excessive rain (b) Water conservation
3. Surface water (c) Sea
4. Rainwater harvesting (d) Drought
5. Saline water (e) Flood

Answer:

 

Column A Column B
1. Deficient rain (d) Drought
2. Excessive rain (e) Flood
3. Surface water (a) River
4. Rainwater harvesting (b) Water conservation
5. Saline water (c) Sea

Page No 190:

Question E:

Write True (T) or False (F) against the following statements in the given brackets:
1. Presence of soluble salts makes sea water saline. ( )
2. Making land concrete lowers the groundwater level. ( )
3. Sea water is fit for irrigation. ( )
4. Surface water is generally free from suspended impurities. ( )
5. Water cycle is a continuous process. ( )

Answer:

1. Presence of soluble salts makes sea water saline. (T)

2. Making land concrete lowers the groundwater level. (T)

3. Sea water is fit for irrigation. (F)
Sea water contains impurities and salts which are not good for the growth of crops. Hence, sea water is not fit for irrigation.

4. Surface water is generally free from suspended impurities. (F)
Surface water contains impurities and salts.

5. Water cycle is a continuous process. (T)

Page No 190:

Question F:

Complete the following chart. You may take help from different sources.

Find out Answer
(i) Why rainwater (a freshwater
source) is not fit for drinking?
(a)______________________
    ______________________
(ii) What can be the impact of global warming on water cycle? (b)______________________
    ______________________

Answer:

 

Find out Answer
(i) Why rainwater (a freshwater
source) is not fit for drinking?
(a) Rainwater is not fit for drinking, as it gets contaminated by dust particles, germs, bacteria and toxic gases present in the atmosphere before reaching the surface of the Earth.
(ii) What can be the impact of global warming on water cycle? (b) Global warming intensifies the water cycle, leading to an increase in river discharge. Due to global warming, the surface of the Earth becomes extremely dry at some places, and extremely wet at the other areas. The rate of precipitation also increases. Hence, water cycle gets influenced by global warming, thereby inducing change in the patterns of rainfall.
 



Page No 192:

Question A.1:

Name three sources of surface water.

Answer:

The three sources of surface water are:
1. rainwater
2. river water and lake water
3. sea water

Page No 192:

Question A.2:

Name the purest form of natural water.

Answer:

The purest form of natural water is rainwater.

Page No 192:

Question A.3:

Which is the biggest source of water on earth?

Answer:

Sea water is the biggest source of water on the Earth.

Page No 192:

Question A.4:

By which process plant release water vapour?

Answer:

By the process of transpiration, plant releases water vapour into the atmosphere.

Page No 192:

Question A.5:

How is underground water made available to humans?

Answer:

Human beings avail underground water either by digging wells or through natural springs.

Page No 192:

Question A.6:

Write about two effects of drought on plants.

Answer:

Following are the two effects of drought on plants:
1. Soil turns extremely dry, and becomes unfit for ploughing and growing crops.
2. Useful microbes, present in the soil, die.

Page No 192:

Question A.7:

Give two causes of flood.

Answer:

Following are the two reasons responsible for causing floods:
  1. Heavy and continuous rainfall
  2. River blockage due to landslides

Page No 192:

Question B.1:

What is underground water?

Answer:

During rainfall, some water seeps into the soil. This water then keeps flowing through the various layers of the soil until it reaches the hard rock layer, where it gets accumulated to form a reservoir. This reservoir of water is known as underground water.

Page No 192:

Question B.2:

What is water cycle?

Answer:

The constant movement of water from the Earth to the atmosphere and back to the Earth through the process of evaporation, condensation and precipitation is known as the water cycle.

Page No 192:

Question B.3:

What are the reasons for lowering of the water table in big cities?

Answer:

Following are the reasons behind the lowering of water level in big cities:
  1. Lack of vegetation causes the rainwater to flow away quickly leading to the erosion of fertile soil.
  2. Surface of the land is covered by concrete that reduces the seepage of rainwater into the ground.
  3. Due to overpopulation, more pumps and tube wells are used to draw out groundwater.

Page No 192:

Question B.4:

How are natural springs formed?a

Answer:

Natural springs are formed when the accumulated underground water exerts pressure and comes out of the Earth’s surface through any available opening. This water is called spring water.

Page No 192:

Question B.5:

What will you do to conserve water at home?

Answer:

 We can conserve water at home through the following ways:
  1. By not letting the water run uselessly while brushing or washing our hands
  2. By ensuring that there is no leakage in taps, water pipes and joints
  3. By preventing the overflow of water from the overhead water storage tank
  4. By planting trees and plants to retain the moisture in the soil

Page No 192:

Question B.6:

How are clouds formed?

Answer:

Water vapour, being lighter, rises up into the atmosphere and condenses to form tiny water droplets. These droplets join together to form clouds.

Page No 192:

Question B.7:

State two harmful effects of drought on animals.

Answer:

Two harmful effects of drought on animals are as follows:
  1. Shortage of drinking water
  2. Available water is dirty and can cause water-borne diseases

Page No 192:

Question B.8:

Why is sea water salty?

Answer:

Rivers and lakes are formed by rainwater. This water, on its way through the soil, dissolves soluble salts and carries suspended impurities before flowing into the sea. This is the reason why sea water contains a large percentage of dissolved salts and is called saline water. Hence, it is salty.

Page No 192:

Question C.1:

List five important uses of water.

Answer:

Following are the five important uses of water:

  1. Water is used for drinking, cooking, bathing and cleaning, etc.
  2. Water is used for irrigation and for medical and chemical purposes.
  3. Water is a universal solvent.
  4. Water is used by plants for absorbing minerals and salts from the soil.
  5. Water regulates the temperature of our body through the formation of sweat.

Page No 192:

Question C.2:

Differentiate between surface water underground water.

Answer:

 

Surface Water Underground Water
Surface water is found on the surface of the Earth.
Underground water is found deep under the soil and over impervious rocks.
For example: rainwater, rivers and lakes, seas and oceans For example: wells and springs



Page No 193:

Question C.3:

What do you mean by rainwater harvesting? How is it useful to us?

Answer:

The process of collecting and storing rainwater from the roof top of the buildings is called rainwater harvesting. The importance of rainwater harvesting are as follows-
  1. It is done to conserve and reuse rainwater.
  2. It increases the level of underground water.
  3. It enhances the quantity and quality of water reservoir.
  4. It improves the growth of the plants.

Page No 193:

Question C.4:

Explain how evaporation and condensation help in completing water cycle.

Answer:

The constant flow of water from the Earth to the atmosphere and back to the Earth is known as the water cycle. The two main steps involved in water cycle are evaporation and condensation.
Evaporation is the process in which water changes into vapour due to the heat of the Sun. Being extremely light, the water vapour rises up into the atmosphere. Then, it condenses (condensation) to form tiny water droplets that further join together to form clouds. When the clouds get heavier, the water droplets from the clouds fall back to the Earth as rain.

Page No 193:

Question C.5:

How can we conserve water at home?

Answer:

We can conserve water at home through the following ways:
  1. Don’t allow the water to run uselessly while brushing teeth or washing hands.
  2. Ensure that the taps, water pipes and joints are leak-proof.
  3. Prevent the overflow of overhead water storage tank.
  4. Plant small trees and plants to retain moisture in the soil.

Page No 193:

Question C.6:

Explain the cause and effect of floods.

Answer:

Flood is a natural disaster which occurs when a river overflows its banks because of excessive rain or high tidal waves like tsunami. It also occurs when any river gets blocked due to landslides. Cyclones, followed by heavy rain, is also a potential reason behind floods.

Following are the effects of floods:

1)      Erosion of fertile soil

2)      Destruction of crops due to water logging

3)      Large scale destruction of property

4)      Increased chances of water borne diseases

5)      Disruption of transport and communication facilities

6)      Non-availability of essential food items

Page No 193:

Question C.7:

Explain the formation of water cycle with a diagram.

Answer:

Water Cycle



Water goes through different processes in the environment, and transforms through various states during these phenomena. This cyclic process through which water passes through its different states, in the environment, is called the water cycle.
Water cycle consists of four steps, i.e. evaporation, condensation, precipitation and flowing back of water to the oceans.
Evaporation is the process in which water gets transformed into vapour by the heat of the Sun. The vapour being lighter rises up into the atmosphere where they get condensed (condensation) to form tiny water droplets. In the process of precipitation, these droplets join together to form clouds. Slowly, these droplets become bigger and heavier and finally fall back to the Earth as rain. The rainwater forms streams and springs which flows into the rivers. The rivers then flow into the seas or oceans, thereby completing the cycle.

Page No 193:

Question C.8:

Explain the causes and effects of drought.

Answer:

Cause of drought:
When there is not enough rain to recharge the natural sources of water, the soil of those regions becomes dry from continuous evaporation and transportation of moisture. The water level of ponds and wells in those regions falls and dries up, leading to drought.

Effects of drought:
  1. Soil becomes extremely dry and unfit for cultivation.
  2. Soil loses all minerals and becomes barren.
  3. There is shortage in the availability of drinking water.
  4. The available water is unfit for usage, and causes water-borne diseases in humans and animals.
  5. Crops get destroyed causing shortage of food.



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