Living Science 2019 Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 10 Living Organisms And Their Surroundings are provided here with simple step-by-step explanations. These solutions for Living Organisms And Their Surroundings are extremely popular among Class 6 students for Science Living Organisms And Their Surroundings Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams. All questions and answers from the Living Science 2019 Book of Class 6 Science Chapter 10 are provided here for you for free. You will also love the ad-free experience on Meritnation’s Living Science 2019 Solutions. All Living Science 2019 Solutions for class Class 6 Science are prepared by experts and are 100% accurate.

Page No 113:

Question 1:

If you study the relationship between living things and their surroundings, which subject are you studying?

Answer:

The relationship between living things and their surroundings is studied under ecology.
 

Page No 113:

Question 2:

The natural environment consists of the air, water, soil, sunlight and temperature in a place. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Answer:

No, the natural environment does not only consist of water, soil, temperature, air and sunlight in a place. This is because a natural environment constitute abiotic and biotic components of the environment. Soil, water, air, temperature and sunlight only represent the abiotic components of the environment. 

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Question 3:

In the word 'autotroph', 'troph' means food. What does 'auto mean? What kind of living organisms is this name given to? Why?

Answer:

'Auto' in the word 'autotroph' means self. The name autotroph is given to plants. This is because plants have the ability to prepare their own food by the process of photosynthesis. 

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Question 4:

Name five abiotic components of the environment.

Answer:

The abiotic components of an environment include non-living component present in an environment. Some of the abiotic components of the environment include water, air, soil, sunlight and temperature. 

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Question 5:

Is the burrow of a rabbit its habitat?

Answer:

No, the burrow of a rabbit is not its habitat. This is because a habitat must provide all the things required for the survival of an organism. However, a burrow only provides shelter and not things such as food that are essential for life. 



Page No 117:

Question 1:

In which kind of habitat do you expect to find organisms adapted to reduce water loss?

Answer:

The organism that are adapted to reduce water loss are found in the desert habitats. The organisms living in this habitat experience water scarcity and thus need to minimise water loss. 

Page No 117:

Question 2:

The hump of the camel stores water. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Answer:

No, the hump of a camel does not store water. The hump is used for the storing excess food in the form of fat. This fat is used by camel when the food becomes scare. 

Page No 117:

Question 3:

A cactus plant has thick, fleshy leaves. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Answer:

No, a cactus does not have fleshy, thick leaves. The leaves in cactus plants are modified into spines, which prevent the loss of water from the plant. The cactus plant in fact have thick fleshy stems which store water that can be used by the plant. 

Page No 117:

Question 4:

Tape grass is a plant that remains submerged in water. Its leaves are narrow and long. How does this help the tape grass?

Answer:

The narrow and long leaves of tape grass allows the plant to resist the damaging effects of water currents. This ensures that the plant survives in spite of strong water currents. 

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Question 5:

Some animals living inside water do not have gills. Name two such animals. How do they breathe?

Answer:

Animals that live inside water but do not possess gills include whales and dolphins. These animals breathe with the help of blowholes that are located in the upper regions of their heads. 

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Question 6:

The body structure of penguins is adapted to bear the cold. Besides, it is also seen that they behave in a certain way to keep warm. What is this behaviour seen in penguins?

Answer:

A typical behaviour of penguins that helps them to keep warm is that penguins have a tendency to remain together in groups. 

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Question 7:

Lions are found in grasslands and are brown in colour. Does this colour help them in any way?

Answer:

The brown colour of lions helps them to blend with their surroundings through camouflage. This allow lions to easily catch their prey because the prey is not able to clearly see the lions in the grasslands. 



Page No 119:

Question 1:

Which of the following are producers?
(a) herbivores
(b) carnivores
(c) green plants
(d) bacteria and fungi

Answer:

(c) green plants

Green plants produce food by photosynthesis. Hence, they are known as producers.

Page No 119:

Question 2:

Which of these enable the nutrients present in the bodies of plants and animals to go back to the soil after they die?
(a) producers
(b) primary consumers
(c) decomposers
(d) secondary consumers

Answer:

(c) decomposers

Decomposers break down the bodies of dead plants and animals, enabling nutrients present in their bodies to be returned to the soil.

Page No 119:

Question 3:

Which of these is not a type of terrestrial habitat?
(a) desert
(b) grassland
(c) fresh water
(d) tundra

Answer:

(c) fresh water

A terrestrial habit means a habit on land. Fresh water is an aquatic habit, and is therefore not terrestrial.

Page No 119:

Question 4:

Choose the incorrect pair.
(a) cactus-desert
(b) germs-air
(c) water lily-sea
(d) frog-pond

Answer:

(c) water lily-sea

A water lily cannot grow in salty water found in seas.

Page No 119:

Question 5:

Hibernation is an adaptation for
(a) preventing loss of water.
(b) escaping hot weather.
(c) escaping cold weather.
(d) none of these

Answer:

(c) escaping cold weather

Animals hibernate in winter to conserve their energy so that they can survive winter without eating too much.

Page No 119:

Question 6:

Which of these are biotic components of the environment?
(a) plants and animals
(b) soil and minerals
(c) air and water
(d) sunlight and temperature

Answer:

(a) plants and animals

Plants and animals are living or biotic components of the environment.

Page No 119:

Question 7:

Carbon dioxide in air is used by plants to
(a) breathe.
(b) make food.
(c) remove waste.
(d) trap energy of sun for photosynthesis.

Answer:

(b) make food.

Plants use the carbon dioxide from air for making food by the process of photosynthesis.

Page No 119:

Question 8:

Which of these are all aquatic habitats?
(a) freshwater, coastal and rainforest
(b) marine, tundra and desert
(c) mountain, grassland and coastal
(d) marine, freshwater and estuaries

Answer:

(d) marine, freshwater and estuaries

Marine habitat means the sea, freshwater habitats include fresh water rivers, ponds etc. Estuaries are regions where rivers flow into the sea.

Page No 119:

Question 1:

Are biotic components of the environment living or non-living?

Answer:

Biotic components of the environment are living.

Page No 119:

Question 2:

Which living organism help to maintain a constant level of oxygen in the air?

Answer:

Plants help to maintain a constant level of oxygen in the air.

Page No 119:

Question 3:

What is the study of the relationship between living things and their environment called?

Answer:

The study of the relationship between living things and their environment is known as ecology.

Page No 119:

Question 4:

Give another name for 'producers'.

Answer:

Producers are also known as autotrophs.

Page No 119:

Question 5:

Are carnivores primary consumers or secondary consumers?

Answer:

Carnivores eat other animals. Hence, they depend indirectly upon plants for nutrition and are known as secondary consumers.

Page No 119:

Question 6:

Name the living organisms that break down the dead bodies of plants and animals into simple compounds.

Answer:

The living organisms that break down the dead bodies of plants and animals into simple compounds are known as decomposers.



Page No 120:

Question 7:

Where do marine animals live−in salt water or in fresh water?

Answer:

Marine animals live in salt water.

Page No 120:

Question 8:

A desert habitat is a terrestrial habitat. True or false?

Answer:

True. A desert habitat is a terrestrial habitat as its a land habitat.

Page No 120:

Question 9:

Plants with fleshy stems that store water are called ___________ plants.

Answer:

Plants with fleshy stems that store water are called succulent plants.

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Question 10:

What is the name given to the shape because of which fish are able to move in water without too much resistance?

Answer:

The name used to describe the shape of fish, which allows them to move in water without too much resistance is "streamlined".

Page No 120:

Question 11:

Dolphins breathe in water through gills. True or false?

Answer:

False. Dolphins are mammals and have lungs. They breathe through a blowhole on the top of their heads.

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Question 12:

Trees growing on mountains have shapes to allow ___________ to slide off easily.

Answer:

Trees growing on mountains have shapes to allow snow to slide off easily.

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Question 13:

Give another name for the winter sleep that extends throughout the winter.

Answer:

The winter sleep that extends throughout the winter is known as hibernation.

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Question 14:

Give one word for 'hiding by merging with the surroundings'.

Answer:

'Hiding by merging with the surroundings' is also known as camouflage.

Page No 120:

Question 15:

Vegetation growing in lower levels in tropical rainforest have _____________ leaves.

Answer:

Vegetation growing in lower levels in tropical rainforest have large leaves.

Page No 120:

Question 1:

What do you mean by ecology?

Answer:

The study of the interactions between an organism and its environment is known as ecology. Living organisms interact with their environments for their survival.

Page No 120:

Question 2:

How does hibernation help a dormouse?

Answer:

A dormouse minimises energy wastage by hibernating during winter months so that its food consumption is greatly reduced.

Page No 120:

Question 3:

What prevents grass from breaking in windy conditions?

Answer:

Grasses have flexible stalks that allow them to bend without breaking in windy conditions.

Page No 120:

Question 4:

Give an example of an animal specialized to eat food that few others eat. What adaptation does the animal have to eat that food?

Answer:

A toucan is an example of a bird that is specialized to eat food that few others eat.
The toucan has a strong, curved beak, that it uses to crack the tough shells of nuts.

Page No 120:

Question 5:

Why are only green plants called producers?

Answer:

Green plants do not depend upon other organisms for food. They produce their own food using sunlight, carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil. Hence, green plants are known as producers.

Page No 120:

Question 6:

Lions have strong claws that can be withdrawn inside their toes. How doess this help the lion?

Answer:

The strong, retractable claws of a lion helps the lion in stalking its prey silently and to attack it without being heard.

Page No 120:

Question 7:

Mention two adaptations in plants growing in deserts that help them survive in scarcity of water.

Answer:

The two adaptations of desert plants that enable them to survive a scarcity of water are:

  1. Desert plants have fleshy stems, known as succulent stems, that can store water.
  2. The leaves of many desert plants, such as cacti are modified into spines to reduce loss of water.

Page No 120:

Question 8:

How do streamlined bodies help water animals?

Answer:

Streamlined bodies of water animals reduce the resistance from water during swimming and enable them to swim fast.

Page No 120:

Question 1:

Explain the difference between herbivores, carnivores and omnivores.

Answer:

Herbivore Carnivore   Omnivore
Herbivorous animals  feed on plants. Carnivorous animals eat the flesh of other animals. An omnivorous animal can eat both plants and also other animals.
Herbivorous animals have sharp cutting teeth in front of their mouths and flat grinding teeth at the rear of their mouths Carnivorous animals have well developed sharp teeth, known as canines to help tear the flesh of prey. Carnivorous animals also have claws to hold on to prey. Omnivorous animals have teeth in between that of herbivores and carnivores. They have sharp teeth to tear meat, but also posses flat grinding teeth to crush plants.
Examples of herbivores include cows, goats, buffaloes, deer, zebra etc. Examples of carnivores include lions, tigers, eagles, leopards etc. Examples of omnivores include humans, pigs, bears etc.

Page No 120:

Question 2:

Mention two ways in which plants are useful to animals and vice versa.

Answer:

Plants are useful to animals in following ways:

  1. A source of food: All animals depend upon plants, either directly or indirectly, for food.
  2. A source of oxygen: The oxygen required for the respiration of animals is generated by plants.
Animals are useful to plants in following ways:
  1. Dispersal of seeds: Plants depend upon animals for the dispersal of seeds.
  2. Manure: The excreta of animals and also their dead bodies add nutrients to the soil that plants use for their growth.

Page No 120:

Question 3:

What is the difference between biotic and abiotic components of the environment? Explain with examples.

Answer:

 

Biotic components Abiotic components
These include the biological environment or living organisms. These include the physical environment.
Examples: Plants and animals such as deer, lions, hyenas etc Examples: Minerals, air, water, sunlight, humidity etc.

Page No 120:

Question 4:

What is adaptation? What is its importance? Explain with the help of two examples.

Answer:

Living organisms (plants and animals) exhibit particular features that enable them to survive and thrive in their habitats. Such features are known as adaptations. Two examples of adaptation are:

  1. To prevent water loss from leaves by transpiration in the hot climates of deserts, cacti have leaves modified into spines.
  2. Animals living in extremely cold climates, such as polar bears have thick coats of fur and large deposits of fat to insulate them against the cold.

Page No 120:

Question 5:

Give an example of an animal that uses camouflage to escape from enemies, and another that uses camouflage to catch its prey. Explain how the camouflage helps each of them.

Answer:

Camouflage is an adaptation by which an animal shows coloration or body features that allows it to blend with the environment. This can be useful to either evade predators, or to capture prey.

  1. Stick insects are coloured and patterned like twigs on a tree. This makes it very hard for predators to see them.
  2. Tigers have a striped, orange pelt. This enables the tiger to camouflage itself, enabling it to sneak up to its prey.

Page No 120:

Question 6:

List three adaptations each that the following have to survive in the environment they live in.
(a) camel
(b) water lily
(c) fish

Answer:

(a) Camel:

  1. A camel has a hump where fat is stored, which enables a camel to survive food scarcity.
  2. A camel can drink a lot of water at a time and then survive for a long time without water.
  3. A camel does not sweat, excretes little water as urine and passes very dry dung to help minimize the wastage of water.
(b) Water lily:
  1. It has long, narrow stems that are not damaged by water currents.
  2. It has air spaces to enable the plant to float.
  3. Water lilies have large flat leaves with waxy, waterproof upper surfaces.
(c) Fishes:
  1. They have a streamlined shape to help reduce water resistance.
  2. Fishes have gills to respire under water.
  3. Fishes have scales and mucous on their bodies to make them waterproof and reduce water resistance while swimming.

Page No 120:

Question 7:

Lions have eyes in front while deer have eyes on the side. How do these adaptations help the lion and the deer?

Answer:

Lions are predators. Their eyes are therefore located on the front of their heads. This enables the lion to estimate accurately the distance to their prey while attacking it.
Deer have eyes on the sides of their heads. This enables them to look out for approaching predators over a wider range and escape.

Page No 120:

Question 1:

Suppose a scientist came up with a medicine that could kill all bacteria and fungi, and gave it to you to use. Would you use it or not? Why?

Answer:

I would prefer not to use such a medicine. The human body contains many bacteria such as lactobacillus in the intestine that are useful for various functions such as the digestion of milk. Using a medicine that kills all bacteria and fungi will kill even the useful bacteria and fungi and could adversely affect the health of the user of the medicine.

Page No 120:

Question 2:

Do all aquatic animals breathe oxygen dissolved in water?

Answer:

No aquatic animals such as dolphins and whales have lungs and cannot breathe oxygen dissolved in water. They breathe oxygen from the air using blowholes on the top of their heads.



Page No 121:

Question 3:

Animals that hibernate eat a lot before hibernating. Why?

Answer:

When animals hibernate, they derive energy for basic bodily functions from the fat stored in their bodies. Therefore, animals eat a lot to build up their fat reserves before hibernation.

Page No 121:

Question 4:

In a habitat, which are expected to be greater in number−herbivores or carnivores? Why

Answer:

In a habitat, herbivores are expected to outnumber carnivores. This is because carnivores depend upon herbivores for their food and get energy by consuming herbivores. Some energy is wasted during the transfer from herbivores to carnivores. Consequently, less energy exists at the level of a secondary consumer. This leads to a reduction in the number of carnivores compared to herbivores.

Page No 121:

Question 5:

All organisms including bacteria and fungi feed on dead plants and animals. Then why are only bacteria and fungi known as decomposers?

Answer:

Bacteria and fungi break down the dead bodies of plants and animals and return the nutrients back to the soil. This is not the case with other organisms such as scavengers. For example, if a vulture eats a dead animal, the vulture uses the nutrients in its body and the nutrients are not returned to the soil. Since, bacteria and fungi return the nutrients back to the soil, they are known as decomposers.

Page No 121:

Question 1:

Choose the most appropriate answer.

1. What is the main reason why monkeys do not live in a grassland habitat?

a. There is not enough water for them.
b. There is not enough food for them.
c. There are very few trees.
d. They cannot hide in the grass.

2. What is the main reason why humans do not live in a sea habitat?
a. There is not enough food.
b. There is no fresh water.
c. It is difficult to build a house there.
d. It is too cold.

Answer:

1. Monkeys are animals which are usually found in tropical rainforests due to the dense vegetation found there. Monkeys are adapted to living on trees, for example, they have strong arms to swing from one tree to another. On the other hand, in grassland ecosystem the area is covered with grasses and grass like plants. It is suitable for grazing animals. These areas are deficient in the number of trees which means the availability of food for monkeys also becomes a reason why they are not found in grasslands.

2. Humans cannot survive in a sea habitat due to non-availability of fresh water. Humans require fresh water for their survival and they cannot survive in its absence. Sea water has high concentration of salt and this water can neither be consumed nor used for any other process.

Page No 121:

Question 1:

Sandeep is used to an air conditioner in his room. He visited his grandparents who did not have an air conditioner. Sandeep was unhappy and grumbled the whole time. His grandparents felt very bad.
Do you think Sandeep was right in behaving in this way? What would you have done?
We often do not get the comforts of life that we become used to. But we should be able to adapt to such conditions and remain happy.

Answer:

Sandeep was wrong in his behaviour. He should not have behaved in such an irresponsible manner and should have behaved responsibly.
His behaviour was disheartening for his grandparents. He should have understood that we should try to be happy in what we have instead of cribbing about things we do not have. He should learn to adjust to his surroundings.
I would have never behaved in this manner and rather would have cherished all the moments that I would spend with them. I would be interested in knowing how people lived there without these modern facilities and what ways they adopted to beat the heat. I would have loved to have long talks with my grandparents and enjoy some stories.



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