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Page No 37:

Question 1:

Which two properties are common to all forms of matter?

Answer:

Two properties common to all form of matter are as follows:
a) All materials occupy space.
b) All materials have mass.

Page No 37:

Question 2:

Name two things that are matter and two that are not matter?

Answer:

Anything that occupies space and has mass is called matter. For eg. wood, iron, air, etc.

Those things which are not considered as matter are feelings of love and sadness. They do not occupy space and do not have mass.

Page No 37:

Question 3:

What is the smallest particle of:
a. gold
b. Water ?

Answer:

(a) The smallest particle of gold is the atom. Atom is composed of electron, proton, and neutron.

(b) Water is a molecule, its smallest particle is an atom.

 

Page No 37:

Question 4:

On what basis is a group of objects classified?

Answer:

Objects are classified into a group on the basis of similar properties.

Page No 37:

Question 5:

Can you classify a group of object which have exactly similar properties?

Answer:

Classification of objects on the basis of similar properties:
1. Appearance:
Some objects shine while some do not. For eg. iron is a shiny object while wood does not have any shine.

2. Texture:
Some objects have smooth surfaces while some have a rough surface. For eg. wood has rough surface while iron has plain surface.



Page No 41:

Question 1:

Name one solid, one liquid and one gas that are soluble in water.

Answer:

Water-soluble solid: Sugar

Water-soluble liquid: Alcohol

Water-soluble gas: Oxygen
 

Page No 41:

Question 2:

The density of an object is slightly less than that of water. Will it float or sink in water?

Answer:

If the density of an object is slightly less that of water, then it will float on the surface of the water.
 

Page No 41:

Question 3:

Is clear water opaque, translucent or transparent?

Answer:

Clear water is transparent because most of the light can pass through the clear water.

Page No 41:

Question 4:

Why do solids, liquids and gases have different properties related to shape and volume?

Answer:

Solids, liquids, and gases have different properties related to shape and volume because of the following reasons:

Solids have fixed shape and volume. For eg. iron, wood, etc.
Liquids have fixed volume but no fixed shape. For eg. milk, water, etc.
Gases have neither the fixed shape nor the volume. For eg. oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc.



Page No 42:

Question 1:

There are about 118 different types of
(a) elements.
(b) molecules.
(c) mixtures.
(d) compounds.

Answer:

(a) elements.
Periodic table consists of 118 different types of elements.
 

Page No 42:

Question 2:

Which of the following is not matter?
(a) water
(b) air
(c) sound
(d) fruits

Answer:

(c) sound
Sound is a form of energy. Matter is something which occupies space and has mass.

Page No 42:

Question 3:

Classification is
(a) grouping things as living and non-living.
(b) grouping living things on the basis of common properties.
(c) grouping non-living things on the basis of common properties.
(d) grouping all things, living or non-living, on the basis of common properties.

Answer:

(d) grouping all things, living or non-living, on the basis of common properties.

Classification can be done in various ways, such as, living and non-living, man-made, or natural, etc.

Page No 42:

Question 4:

Classification is useful because
(a) it makes things look neat and tidy.
(b) it makes studying the properties of things much easier.
(c) it helps us in the kitchen.
(d) it helps us in the school library.

Answer:


(b) it makes studying the properties of things much easier
Classification is used to make our work easy at home as well as school.

Page No 42:

Question 5:

Which property is common to all matter?
(a) Matter takes up space and has no mass.
(b) Matter can be seen and has some mass.
(c) Matter takes up space and has mass.
(d) Matter takes up space and may or may not have mass.

Answer:

(c) Matter takes up space and has mass.

Anything that occupies space and has mass is called matter. This includes all the matter in the universe.



Page No 43:

Question 6:

The state of matter which has a definite shape but no definite volume is
(a) solid.
(b) liquid.
(c) gas.
(d) none of these

Answer:

(d) none of these.

A solid has both definite shape and fixed volume. Liquid has no definite shape, but has a fixed volume. A gas has neither a definite shape nor a fixed volume.

Page No 43:

Question 7:

A substance exists in the solid state because
(a) forces between its molecules are weak.
(b) molecules are tightly packed.
(c) molecules can move throughout the volume occupied by the substance.
(d) molecules can move freely in the entire space available to them.

Answer:

(b) molecules are tightly packed.

In solids, molecules are tightly packed and attractive forces between the molecules keep them closely packed to each other.

Page No 43:

Question 8:

Gases posses neither fixed volume nor fixed shape because
(a) molecules are loosely packed.
(b) molecular motion is fast.
(c) there is very little force between molecules.
(d) it is difficult to make the molecules move away from each other.

Answer:

(a) molecules are loosely packed.

In gases, molecules are far apart from each other and hardly experience any attractive forces between each other. As a result, gases have neither a fixed shape nor a fixed volume.

Page No 43:

Question 1:

Name one natural material we get from trees.

Answer:

Wood is a natural material we get from trees.

Page No 43:

Question 2:

All matter takes up space. What is the name given to the amount of space something takes up?

Answer:

The amount of space something takes up is called volume.

Page No 43:

Question 3:

What is the smallest particle of an element called?

Answer:

The smallest particle of an element is called an atom.

Page No 43:

Question 4:

What is the smallest particle of a compound called?

Answer:

The smallest particle of a compound is called a molecule.

Page No 43:

Question 5:

In the following list, circle the one which is not matter.
air, water, pen, balloon, feelings, petrol

Answer:

In the list given above, feelings is not a matter. Feelings is an emotion.

Page No 43:

Question 6:

What is the grouping together of things with similar properties called?

Answer:

The grouping together of things with similar properties is known as classification.

Page No 43:

Question 7:

Classification is done only for living things. True or false?

Answer:

The statement "classification is done only for living things" is false. Even non-living things can be classified. For example, non-living objects can be classified as solids, liquids or gases.

Page No 43:

Question 8:

Silk cloth has ____________ which cotton cloth does not.

Answer:

Silk cloth has shine which cotton cloth does not.

Page No 43:

Question 9:

Which state of matter can easily change its shape and volume?

Answer:

Gaseous state of matter can easily change its shape and volume.

Page No 43:

Question 10:

Are all liquids miscible with water?

Answer:

No, all liquids are not miscible with water. For example, water and oil are immiscible.

Page No 43:

Question 11:

Name one gas which is soluble in water.

Answer:

Oxygen gas is soluble in water.

Page No 43:

Question 12:

If ____________ of a solid > ____________ of water, the solid will sink in water.

Answer:

If density of a solid > density of water, the solid will sink in water.

Page No 43:

Question 13:

What is a substance through which light can pass partially but you cannot see through it called?

Answer:

The substance through which light can pass partially but you cannot see through it is called translucent.

Page No 43:

Question 1:

List five materials. Name one thing that is made from each of these.

Answer:

The five materials and things made from them are as follows:

  1. Steel: Knives, utensils and cars are made of steel.
  2. Wood: Chairs and tables are made from wood.
  3. Cotton: Clothes are made of cotton.
  4. Leather: Shoes and belts are made of leather.
  5. Paper: Books, writing materials and writing pads are made of paper.

Page No 43:

Question 2:

What is matter? Give two examples of things that are matter and two that are not.

Answer:

Anything that occupies space and has mass is called matter.
Example: Water and air are matter, while feelings and sound are not matter.

Page No 43:

Question 3:

In what ways is all matter alike?

Answer:

All matter is alike in the following ways:

  1. All matter occupy space and the amount of space it occupies is volume.
  2. All matter has mass that can be measured using a weighing balance.

Page No 43:

Question 4:

What is the difference between an element and a compound?

Answer:

 

Element Compound
The smallest particle of an element is called an atom The smallest particle of compound is a molecule.
Example: The smallest particle of iron is an atom of iron. Example: The smallest constituent of water is a water molecule composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.

Page No 43:

Question 5:

What do you mean by texture?

Answer:

When we touch different types of materials, each materials feels different. This indicate the difference in texture of each material. The different feel of different materials to the touch is known as texture.
Example: Wood and metal feel different on touching.

Page No 43:

Question 6:

Metals are lustrous, but an iron rod used in construction does not shine. Explain.

Answer:

When iron comes into contact with air and water, it rusts and the surface looses its lustrous appearance. As a result, an iron rod used in construction does not shine. If the iron rod is rubbed with sand paper, then the layer of rust is removed and it becomes lustrous again.

Page No 43:

Question 7:

How can you make paper translucent?

Answer:

One can make a paper translucent by spreading few drops of oil on it. The part of paper sheet on which the oil is spread become translucent.

Page No 43:

Question 8:

There are only about 118 different kinds of atoms, but millions of compounds. Explain.

Answer:

There are 118 different kinds of elements, but millions of compounds because two or more elements join together to form compounds.



Page No 44:

Question 1:

What is classification? How is it useful?

Answer:

Grouping of things with similar properties is called classification. We can classify different things based on whether they are living or non living, metals or non-metals. It is also possible to classify objects based on their size, solubility in water etc. 
By classifying things/objects we can make our work easy. For example an alphabetic classification of books in the library makes it easy to retrieve a certain book needed.

Page No 44:

Question 2:

There can be several levels of classifications. Explain with reference to classification of living things.

Answer:

Classification can be done on various different levels.
Living organisms can be classified into plants or animals. Plants can be further classified into flowering and non-flowering plants or on the basis of some other factors. Animals can be classified into sub categories such as insects, reptiles, fishes, mammals, etc.

Page No 44:

Question 3:

Name the three states of matter. In what ways are they different from each other?

Answer:

The three states of matter are as follows:
(i) Solids
(ii) Liquids
(iii) Gases
 

Solids Liquids Gases
The atoms/molecules of a solid are closely packed with each other. The atoms/molecules of a liquid are further apart as compared to a solid. The atoms/molecules of gases are loosely held and lie far from each other.
A solid has a definite shape and a fixed volume. A liquid has a fixed volume but it assumes the shape of the container it is placed into. Gases neither have a fixed shape nor a fixed volume.

Page No 44:

Question 4:

How does sugar dissolve in water?

Answer:

When sugar is put into water, the water molecules break the sugar into individual molecules. These molecules of sugar are then dispersed throughout the water and are so small that they cannot be individually seen. In such a state, the sugar is said to have dissolved in water.

Page No 44:

Question 5:

Define density. How is it related to floating and sinking in water?

Answer:

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume of a substance.
A substance having a density greater than that of water will sink in it, for example, a piece of iron or aluminium. While, a substance which is less dense than water will float in it, for example, wood, cork or cotton.

Page No 44:

Question 6:

What is the difference between miscible and immiscible liquids? Give one example of each.

Answer:

Miscible liquids Immiscible liquids
Liquids which mix with each other are called as miscible liquids. Liquids that do not mix with each other are called as immiscible liquids.
Example: Milk and water are miscible liquids. Example: Coconut oil and water are immiscible liquids.

Page No 44:

Question 7:

What is the difference between transparent and opaque objects? Give two examples of each.

Answer:

Transparent objects Opaque objects
If light falling on the object can pass through it, its termed as transparent object. If no light is able to pass through an object, it is called an opaque object.
Examples: Glass and air. Examples: wood, iron or aluminium.

Page No 44:

Question 1:

You want to take a tumbler to a picnic. You want to crush and throw away the tumbler after use. Name two materials from which such a tumbler can be made.

Answer:

The crushable tumbler can be made of butter paper or of polystyrene. Both materials are light, relatively inexpensive, water proof and crushable.

Page No 44:

Question 2:

Can water cause molecules in a piece of chalk to break apart? How can you say this?

Answer:

No, water molecules cannot cause the molecules in a piece of chalk to break apart because chalk is not soluble in water.

Page No 44:

Question 3:

Which has greater density−ice or water? How can you say this?

Answer:

Ice floats on water. As a result, it is evident that ice is less dense than water or water has greater density than ice.

Page No 44:

Question 4:

Two molecules of a solid are kept some distance apart and the force between them is measured. The solid is then melted to form a liquid. Two molecules of the liquid are now kept the same distance apart and the force between them is measured. Which force will be greater? Explain why.

Answer:

The force between the various states of matter depends upon the distance between the particles. Here, the nature of the molecule in both the phases i.e solid and liquid is same as well as the distance between the particles in both the cases is same, so force will remain the same in both cases.

Page No 44:

Question 1:

 

1 2 O           3            
                    4 5 S  
              E            
  6 O                      
                      M    
  N       7         8 D      
          O                
                           
9 L         F   C   L     N
                           
                    N      

ACROSS
1. smallest particle of a compound (8)
4. a state of matter (3)
6. a yellow-coloured metal (4)
9.to group together things with similar properties (14)
DOWN
2. gas we breathe in (6)
3. we call iron, gold or hydrogen this (7)
7. another state of matter (5)
8. scientist who coined the term atom (6)

Answer:

 

1M 2 O L E C U L 3E            
  X           L     4G 5A S  
  Y           E       T    
  6G O L D     M       O    
  E           E       M    
  N       7S   N     8 D      
          O   T     A      
          L         L      
9C L A S S I F I C A T I O N
          D         O      
                    N      

ACROSS
1. smallest particle of a compound (8) -MOLECULE
4. a state of matter (3) - GAS
6. a yellow-coloured metal (4) - GOLD
9.to group together things with similar properties (14) - CLASSIFICATION
DOWN
2. gas we breathe in (6) - OXYGEN
3. we call iron, gold or hydrogen this (7) - ELEMENT
5. smallest particle of an element (4) - ATOM

7. another state of matter (5) - SOLID
8. scientist who coined the term atom (6) - DALTON

Page No 44:

Question 1:

The illustrations show blocks of different materials attached to balances. Observe the positions and sizes of the blocks. In each case, determine if it is possible or not possible to say which block has greater density.

Answer:

When we balance something, the material with heavy mass shifts the weight to one side.
Now, we know 
                          Mass=Volume×DensityDensity=MassVolume
So, from the following figures, we can observe that A has a greater density than B.
C has a greater density than D as the volume is the same in both materials.
But we can't predict in the third case because in third case mass and volume both factors are increasing, so we can't judge which material has greater density.
 



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