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Page No 56:

Question 1:

Write two examples for each of the following.

1. Plant fibres ...................................................................
2. Animal fibres ...................................................................
3. Synthetic fibres ...................................................................
4. Jute growing countries ...................................................................
5. Things made of coir ...................................................................
6. Things made of hemp ...................................................................

Answer:

1. Plant fibres     Cotton, jute
2. Animal fibres     Wool, silk
3. Synthetic fibres    Nylon, polyester
4. Jute-growing countries     India, Nepal
5. Things made of coir    Rope, door mats
6. Things made of hemp  Carpets, nets

Page No 56:

Question 2:

Write one word for the following.

1. The material made by weaving threads from fibres ...........................
2. The process by which fabric is made from fibre using looms ...........................
3. The process of separating cotton fibres from its seeds ...........................
4. The process of making yarn from fibre ...........................
5. The process of removing the sticky substance from the stems to obtain the jute fibre ...........................

Answer:

1. The material made by weaving threads from fibres Fabric
2. The process by which fabric is made from fibre using looms Weaving
3. The process of separating cotton fibres from cotton seeds Ginning
4. The process of making yarn from fibre Spinning
5. The process of removing the sticky substance from jute stems to obtain jute fibre Retting

Page No 56:

Question 1:

Write T for the true statement and F for the false one. Correct the false statements(s).
1. Knitting is done on a machine called loom.
2. Nylon and rayon are natural fibres.
3. Khadi is a coarse hand-woven cloth made from jute.
4. After harvesting, cotton is sent for spinning.
5. Retting is needed to extract silk cotton.

Answer:

1. False (F)
                 
Looms are used for weaving.

2. False (F)
                           
Nylon and rayon are synthetic fibres.

3. False (F)

Khadi is a coarse, hand-woven cloth made from cotton.

4. False (F)               

Once cotton is harvested, it is sent for ginning, a process by which fibres are separated from seeds.

5.  False (F)                    

 Retting is needed to extract jute fibres.

Page No 56:

Question 1:

Which of the following fabric came into widespread use around 3000 BC in India?
(a) Wool
(b) Silk
(c) Cotton
(d) Hemp

Answer:

(c) Cotton

The early Indians grew cotton crops to obtain cotton fibres for making fabrics. In those days, stitching of fabric to make clothes was not known.

Page No 56:

Question 2:

Which of these do we get from plants?
(a) Cotton and jute
(b) Coir and silk cotton
(c) Hemp and flax
(d) All of these

Answer:

(d) All of these

Fibres that are obtained from natural sources such as plants and animals are called natural fibres. Cotton, jute, coir, silk cotton, hemp and flax are examples of plant fibres.

Page No 56:

Question 3:

Which of these processes is used to separate cotton fibres from seeds?
(a) Harvesting
(b) Ginning
(c) Spinning
(d) Weaving

Answer:

(b) Ginning

The cotton fibre picked up from the fields has cotton seeds in them. The raw fibre is separated from the seeds by a process known as ginning. Today, ginning is done using a machine, but traditionally, it was done by hand by using a comb-like device.

Page No 56:

Question 4:

Which of these helps to make yarn from fibres?
(a) Harvesting
(b) Ginning
(c) Spinning
(d) Weaving

Answer:

(c) Spinning

By the process of spinning, fibres from a mass of cotton (or wool, silk, etc.) are drawn out and twisted. This brings the tiny fibres together to form a long and twisted thread called yarn.  

Page No 56:

Question 5:

Which of the following fibres is used in the production of rope, carpet, net, and paper?
(a) Cotton
(b) Coir
(c) Silk cotton
(d) Hemp

Answer:

(d) Hemp

Hemp fibre is obtained from the stem of the hemp plant and can be used in the production of textiles, clothing, canvas, rope, carpets, paper, construction materials, etc.



Page No 57:

Question 1:

Define a fibre. What are the different kinds of natural fibres used to make clothes?

Answer:

A very thin thread's strand called yarn from which cloth is made is called a fibre. Fibres are woven to make fabrics such as cotton fabric and silk fabric.
Natural fibres are a collection of tiny threads obtained from plants and animals.
Cotton, wool, silk and flax are among the natural fibres used to make clothes.
Clothes made of cotton fabrics are worn during the hot days of summer.
Clothes made of wool are worn during the cold days of winter.
Clothes made of silk are most comfortable when the weather is neither very hot nor very cold.
Fabric made of flax is called linen and is used for making bed sheets, shirts, etc. 

Page No 57:

Question 2:

Differentiate between weaving and knitting.

Answer:

1. In weaving, fabrics are produced by interlacing two different sets of yarns (threads) horizontally or vertically or by arranging yarns passing in one direction with other yarns at right angles to them.
Knitting involves making fabrics by interlocking loops with a single yarn (single thread) like braids in rows, using needles that are hooked. 

2. In weaving, two sets of yarns are used simultaneously to make a fabric, whereas in knitting, a single yarn is used to make a fabric.

3. Looms are used for weaving yarn to make a fabric. There are two types of looms: handlooms and powerlooms. A loom that is worked by hand is called a handloom, and a loom that works on electric power is called a powerloom.
Knitting is done by hand using needles. Machines are also used for knitting.
                                

Page No 57:

Question 3:

What are natural fibres? Give two examples.

Answer:

Fibres that are obtained from natural sources such as plants or animals and that can be easily transformed into yarns are called natural fibres. Natural fibres are a collection of tiny threads obtained from plants and animals.
Examples of natural fibres are cotton and wool.
Cotton is a natural fibre obtained from plants, and wool is a natural fibre obtained from sheep.

Page No 57:

Question 4:

What are synthetic fibres? Give two examples.

Answer:

Synthetic fibres are man-made fibres that are prepared from chemical substances by the textile industry. Synthetic fibres are much stronger than natural fibres.
Examples of synthetic fibres are nylon and polyester.
Nylon and polyester are made from chemicals obtained from petroleum (crude oil).

Page No 57:

Question 5:

What kind of soil is needed for growing jute plant?

Answer:

Sandy and clayey loam (a rich soil consisting of a mixture of sand, silt and clay) is perfectly suitable for the growth of the jute plant. It grows well in alluvial soil found in floodplains and river deltas.

Page No 57:

Question 6:

Name the countries that are the main producers of jute.

Answer:

India, China, Nepal and Thailand are the main producers of jute.

Page No 57:

Question 7:

Differentiate between hemp and flax.

Answer:

Many people believe that hemp and linen are the same material because they are both obtained from the stem of a plant and because the fabrics made from these fibres tend to be very similar in appearance. Besides the fact that both plants develop extraordinarily long fibres, the main differences are that flax has a much rougher surface than hemp and that flax comes mostly in different grey tones, while hemp fibre usually has brownish tones ranging from blonde to dark brown or almost black.

Page No 57:

Question 1:

Describe the different ways of making fabric from fibre.

Answer:

Fabrics are made from fibres in the following two steps.

1. Fibres are first converted into yarn by the process of spinning.
In the process of spinning, fibres from a mass of cotton (or wool, silk, etc.) are drawn out and twisted. This brings the tiny fibres together to form a long and twisted thread called ‘yarn’.

2. Fabric is made from yarn by the process of weaving or knitting.​
In weaving, fabrics are produced by interlacing two different sets of yarns (threads) horizontally or vertically or by arranging yarns passing in one direction with other yarns at right angles to them.
In weaving, two sets of yarns are used simultaneously to make a fabric. Yarn is woven to make a fabric by using looms. There are two types of looms: handlooms and powerlooms. A loom that is worked by hand is called a handloom, and a  loom that works on electric power is called a powerloom.

Knitting involves making a fabric by interlocking loops with a single yarn (single thread) like braids in rows, using needles that are hooked. In knitting, a single yarn is used to make a fabric. It is done by hand using needles, but machines are also used.

Page No 57:

Question 2:

Explain how we get cotton fibres from the cotton plant.

Answer:

Cotton fibre comes from cotton plants grown in fields by farmers. The cotton crop is usually grown in places that have black soil and a warm climate.
Cotton fibre grows in the seed pod or boll of the cotton plant. The cotton bolls are of the size of lemons. After maturing, the cotton bolls burst open to produce cotton seeds covered with white, soft cotton fibres. Each fibre is a single elongated cell that is flat, twisted and ribbon-like with a wide inner hollow.

A field of cotton plants that are ready for picking cotton looks like a ground covered with snow as all the plants have white cotton fibres on top.

The cotton fibre picked up from the fields (usually by hand) has cotton seeds in them. The raw fibres are separated from the seeds by a process known as ginning. Today, it is done on a machine, but traditionally, it was done by hand by using a comb-like device.

Cotton is used to make clothes and other products such as towels , carpets and sheets. Clothes made out of cotton are light and comfortable.

Page No 57:

Question 3:

Describe the processes involved in the production of jute fibres.

Answer:

Jute fibre is obtained from the stem of the jute plant.  Jute fibres are naturally glued together by a sticky or gummy substance. This sticky substance needs to be removed in order to obtain the fibres. The fibre is extracted from the stem of the jute plant by the process of retting. Thus, the jute plants are cut from the fields when they are in the flowering stage. The stems of the harvested jute plants are immersed in clean pond-water or slow-running streams for a few days to clean and soften the fibre and to facilitate its stripping from the stem. During this time, the stems rot and the fibres are left behind. After a while, the fibres are separated from water by hand. This process of rotting the stems of the plant in water to remove the sticky substance and separate the fibre is known as retting.   
Jute is a rough fibre and is not used for making fabrics or cloth for dresses. But it is a strong plant fibre and is, therefore, used for making ropes and jute or gunny bags.

Page No 57:

Question 4:

Describe with examples the importance of other plant fibres, besides jute and cotton.

Answer:

Flax fibre: Linen or flax fabric is obtained from the stem of the flax plant. Linen fabric is highly moisture-absorbent and durable. It creases easily and requires ironing. However, it is stiffer than cotton. Linen is usually used in the manufacture of summer clothes and home linen.
Coir fibre: Coir fibre is a natural fibre that is obtained from the outer covering or husk of the coconut. There are two types of coir: brown fibre, which is obtained from mature coconuts, and the finer white fibre, which is extracted from immature green coconuts after soaking them for up to 10 months. Typically, white coir spun into yarn is used in the manufacture of rope and fishing nets owing to its strong resistance to salt water. Brown coir is stronger and more widely used than white coir. Applications include sacks, brushes, doormats, rugs, mattresses, insulation panels and packaging. 
Silk cotton fibre: Silk cotton is a silky, fluffy fibre obtained from the fruit of the silk-cotton tree, also called kapok. It is commonly used for stuffing cushions and mattresses, and for other purposes that require a soft, voluminous filling.
Hemp fibre: Hemp fibre is obtained from the stem of the hemp plant. It is used to make ropes, carpets, twine, sailcloth, sacks, bags and webbing. The waste and woody fibres of the stem are sometimes used to make paper. The finer grades can be woven into a type of cloth that resembles coarse linen.



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