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Question 1:

Write two examples for each of the following.

1. Plants in tropical forests ............................. .............................
2. Plants in temperate forests ............................. .............................
3. Animals in temperate forests ............................. .............................
4. Plants in boreal forest ............................. .............................
5. Animals in grasslands ............................. .............................
6. Animals in deserts ............................. .............................
7. Animals in freshwater habitat ............................. .............................
8. Animals in marine habitat ............................. .............................

Answer:

1. Moss and fern
2. Oak and elm
3. Fox and black bear
4. Pine and fur
5. Zebra and lion
6. Camel and kangaroo rat
7. Fish and frog
8. Whale and shark

Page No 133:

Question 2:

Write one word for the following.
1. An area where a particular organism lives naturally
2. Regions where saltwater mixes with freshwater
3. Changes in the structrue or behaviour of an organism that allow it to survive in a particular habitat
4. The period of reduced activity in animals during winter months
5. The seasonal movement of animal from one region to another
6. The ability of certain animals to blend with the surroundings, making them difficult to spot

Answer:

1. Habitat
2. Estuary
3. Adaptation
4. Hibernation
5. Migration
6. Camouflage

Page No 133:

Question 1:

Write T for the true statement and F for the false one. Correct the false statements(s).
1. Rainforest forms the largest habitat on the planet.
2. Coral reefs are rock-like structures made form the skeletons of small oceans.
3. A polar bear can survive in polar regions because of padded feet and hump.
4. Dolphins and whales have gills to breathe in water.

Answer:

1. F
Correct statement: Oceans and seas form the largest habitat on the planet.
2. F
Correct statement: Coral reefs are rock-like structures made from the calcium carbonate secreted by the corals.
3. F
Correct statement: A polar bear has padded feet, but no hump. Hump is present in camel.
4. F
Correct statement: Dolphins and whales have blowholes, not gills, to breathe in water. Gills are present in fish.

Page No 133:

Question 1:

Which of these forests are found between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer?
(a) Tropical
(b) Temperate
(c) Boreal
(d) All of these

Answer:

(a) tropical
Tropical forests are found between the equator and the two tropics (the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn).

Page No 133:

Question 2:

Deciduous trees are found mostly in which forests?
(a) Tropical
(b) Temperate
(c) Boreal
(d) Grasslands

Answer:

(b) temperate
Deciduous trees are found mostly in temperate forests.

Page No 133:

Question 3:

Annual rainfall in grasslands falls in the range of
(a) 40 to 100 cm
(b) 50 to 90 cm
(c) About 150 cm
(d) More than 200 cm

Answer:

(b) 50–90 cm
Annual rainfall in grasslands falls in the range of 50–90 cm.

Page No 133:

Question 4:

Rivers and lakes form which of these aquatic habitat?
(a) Marine
(b) Freshwater
(c) Coastal
(d) None of these

Answer:

(b) Freshwater
Rivers and lakes form freshwater habitat.

Page No 133:

Question 5:

Organisms adapt to their habitat by which of the following means?
(a) Changes in body
(b) Changes in behaviour
(c) Changes in location
(d) All of these

Answer:

(d) all of these
Organisms adapt to their habitat by all three means: body, behaviour and location.



Page No 134:

Question 1:

Define habitat. Name the five major habitats on Earth.

Answer:

The area in which a particular organism lives naturally is known as its habitat. The five major habitats on Earth are forests, grasslands, deserts, mountains and polar regions.

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Question 2:

What are the three major types of forests on Earth?

Answer:

The three major types of forests on Earth are tropical forest, temperate forest and boreal forest.

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Question 3:

What are grasslands? Mention any two differences between a grassland and a desert.

Answer:

Grasslands are those regions that are dominated by grasses and lack too many trees and shrubs. The two difference between a grassland and a desert are as follows:

Grassland Desert
The annual rainfall varies between 50 and 90 cm. The annual rainfall is lesser than 25 cm.
Temperature can reach 30°C. Temperature can reach 45°C.

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Question 4:

What are estuaries? What kind of plants and animals are found there?

Answer:

Estuaries are those regions where saltwater from seas and oceans mix with freshwater of rivers and streams. Mangroves, marsh grasses and seaweeds (plants) and crabs, oysters, waterfowl and worms (animals) are found in this place.

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Question 5:

What are coral reefs? Where are they found?

Answer:

Coral reefs are rock-like structures that are formed by the calcium carbonate secreted by corals. They are found in the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).

Page No 134:

Question 6:

What is adaptation? What are the different means by which organisms adapt to their habitat?

Answer:

The process of changing the structure and behaviour of organisms that allow them to survive in a particular habitat is known as adaptation.
The different means by which organisms adapt to their habitat are as follows:
1. Change in body: Many plants and animals modify their body parts that help them to survive in their habitat.
2. Change in behaviour: Many animals show specialised behaviour such as hibernation (reduce their activities during winter month and go to a deep sleep to escape from extreme low temperatures).
3. Change in location: Certain birds and fishes migrate in search of warmth and food.

Page No 134:

Question 7:

How does camouflaging help animals survive in rainforests?

Answer:

Camouflaging enables animals to survive in rainforest as it helps them to hide from predators. In this process, they blend with the surroundings and make it difficult to spot them.

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Question 8:

How have mountain plants adapted themselves to survive there?

Answer:

Mountain plants show following adaptation for surviving in those regions:
1. They grow close to the ground so that they are not uprooted by strong winds.
2. They produce smaller leaves to prevent water loss.
3. They (some plants) are able to grow under the layer of snow.

Page No 134:

Question 9:

How is a yak able to survive on the mountains?

Answer:

Yak is able to survive on the mountains by following ways:
1. It has a mouth that is adapted to graze on a variety of plants.
2. It has a thick coat of hairs that protect it from extreme cold.
3. It has large chest and lungs that are adapted to low oxygen content in the mountains.
4. It has hooves and horns that are adapted to break the ice from frozen ground and graze on the grass below.

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Question 10:

What is acclimatization? How is adaptation different from acclimatization?

Answer:

The process of changes that can occur in an organism over a short period of time that helps it to adjust to its surroundings is known as acclimatisation. Adaptation are the changes in an organism over a long period of time, whereas acclimatisation are changes over a short period of time.

Page No 134:

Question 1:

What are the adaptations shown by plants in boreal forests?

Answer:

Adaptations shown by plants in boreal forests are as follows:
1. They are conical in nature and thus allow the snow to slide off easily.
2. They have narrow and conical leaves that protect them from natural calamity. These leaves also conserve water.
3. They conserve energy by not shedding their leaves and not growing new leaves.

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Question 2:

Write about the adaptations shown by grassland plants and animals?

Answer:

Adaptations by grassland plants:
1. They have flexible stems that bend instead of breaking during strong winds.
2. They have strong roots that prevent winds from uprooting them.
3. They have narrow and tiny leaves that prevent water loss.

Adaptations by grassland animals:
1. They are able to run fast and escape from predators.
2. They (small animals) escape grassland fires by digging themselves underground.
3. They (most animals) have brown-coloured skin that make them hard to spot among dry brown grass.

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Question 3:

Explain how desert plants and animals are able to survive in the hot and dry climates of the desert.

Answer:

Adaptation of desert plants:
1. They modify their leaves into spines to reduce water loss.
2. Their stem is green and make food by photosynthesis.
3. Their stem is swollen and fleshy to store water.

Adaptation of desert animals:
1. Fat stored in camel's lump acts as food reserve.
2. Kangaroo rat never drinks water and utilises the food to produce water inside its body.

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Question 4:

Explain in detail how plants and animals adapt themselves to survive in aquatic habitat.

Answer:

Adaptation by plants in aquatic habitat:
1. Plants floating in water have strong and narrow stems to protect them from being carried away by water currents.
2. Aquatic plants have air chambers in their stem that allow them to float in water.
3. Lotus and water lily have waxy coating in their leaves that prevent them from rotting.

Adaptation by animals in aquatic habitat:
1. Ducks have webbed feet that allow them to float in water.
2. Fishes have gills that allow them to breathe in water.
3. Octopuses and squids make their bodies streamlined that allow them to swim fast and resist the flowing water.



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