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#### Question 1:

Give two examples each of natural and artificial sources of light.

Natural sources of light are found in nature and are capable of emitting visible light.
Example: Sun and moon

Artificial sources of light are man-made sources of light.
Example: Candle and electric bulb

#### Question 2:

What are 'rays' and 'beams'? Represent them diagrammatically.

Ray:
A ray is just a single ray of light and is shown by an arrow.

Beam:
Beam is a bunch of parallel rays of light.

#### Question 3:

List the conditions needed for a shadow to form.

Following conditions are needed for the formation of a shadow:
1. A light source
2. An opaque obstacle
3. A screen
4. Umbra (darkest part of the shadow) must fall on the screen.

#### Question 4:

List three characteristics of a shadow.

1. It is always black, regardless of the colour of the object used to make the shadow.
2. It only shows the shape or outline of the object and not the details.
3. The size of a shadow varies depending on the distance between the object and the source of light and the distance between the object and the screen.

#### Question 5:

What do you understand by diffused reflection?

Diffused reflection:
When light rays fall on rough surfaces, the reflected rays will travel in different directions. This type of reflection is known as irregular or diffused reflection. The diffused reflection does not obey the laws of reflection.

#### Question 1:

Write two examples for each of the following.

 1 A non-luminous object ....................... ....................... 2 A transparent object ....................... ....................... 3 A regular surface (for reflection) ....................... ....................... 4 An object whose shadow can be seen ....................... .......................

1. A non-luminous object: Moon and book
2. A transparent object: Pure water and plain glass
3. A regular surface (for reflection): Mirror and polished wooden table
4. An object whose shadow can be seen: Child and tree

#### Question 2:

Define the following.
1. Source of light
2. Transparent material
3. Translucent material
4. Opaque material
6. Lateral inversion

1. Source of light
An object that emits light is called a source of light.
Example: Sun

2. Transparent material
A material that allows light to pass through it is called transparent material.
Example: Air

3. Translucent material
A material that partially allows light to pass through it is called translucent material.
Example: Butter paper

4. Opaque material
A material that do not allow light to pass through it is called opaque material.
Example: Wood

When opaque objects are placed in the path of the light, a dark portion is formed on the opposite side of the object. This dark portion is called shadow.
Example: Eclipse is a shadow formed in nature.

6. Lateral inversion
When an object is placed in front of a plane mirror, the right side of the object appears to be on the left side of the image and left side of the object appears to be on the right side of the image. This is called lateral inversion.
Example: The word AMBULANCE is written in laterally inverted text in front of the vehicle so that the person looking in the rear-view mirror may read it and give way.

#### Question 1:

Write T for the true statement and F for the false one. Correct the false statement(s).
1. We can see an object clearly through a translucent material.
2. Shadows are formed only during the day.
3. A shadow is formed when an opaque object blocks the light falling on it.
4. An inverted image is formed in pin-hole camera.

1. We can see an object clearly through a translucent material. F
2. Shadows are formed only during the day. T
3. A shadow is formed when an opaque object blocks the light falling on it. T
4. An inverted image is formed in pinhole camera. T

Correction of the false statement:

We can see an object clearly through a transparent material because it allows the transmission of light.

#### Question 1:

Which of the following is an example of a natural source of light?
(a) Candle light
(b) An electric bulb
(c) A computer screen
(d) A firefly

(d) a firefly
It is a natural source of light because it is found in nature and is capable of emitting visible light.

#### Question 2:

Which of the following is an example of a translucent material?
(a) Clear glass
(b) Smoked glass
(c) Clean water
(d) Clean air

(b) smoked glass
It is a translucent material because it partially allows light to pass through it.

#### Question 3:

Which of these will not form a shadow?
(a) A child
(b) Clear glass
(c) A tree
(d) A cloud

(b) clear glass
Clear glass is an example of transparent objects. The transparent objects do not cast shadows because they do not block light.

#### Question 4:

The shadow of an object does not show
(a) the shape of the object
(b) the outline of the object
(c) the colour of the object
(d) none of these

(c) the colour of the object
The shadows are formed when path of the light is blocked by some opaque object. So, shadows have colour that they get in the absence of light (i.e. black).

#### Question 5:

Which of these is not a part of a pinhole camera?
(a) Box
(b) Tiny hole
(c) Lens
(d) None of these

(c) lens
A pinhole camera is a simple optical device that forms an image without using a lens or a mirror.

#### Question 1:

Explain how materials are classified as transparent, translucent, and opaque.

Depending on the way the materials transmit light, they can be classified into three groups:
(1) Transparent material
(2) Translucent material
(3) Opaque material

1. Transparent material
A material that allows light to pass through it is called transparent material.
Example: Air

2. Translucent material
A material that partially allows light to pass through it is called translucent material.
Example: Butter paper

3. Opaque material
A material that does not allow light to pass through it is called opaque material.
Example: Wood

#### Question 2:

With the help of a diagram, explain the difference between reflection from a rough surface and reflection from a smooth surface.

Reflection from a rough surface
When a parallel beam of light rays fall on a rough surface, the rays will reflect in different directions. This type of reflection is known as irregular or diffused reflection.

Reflection from a smooth surface
When a parallel beam of  light rays fall on a plane and smooth surface, the reflected rays are parallel. This type of reflection is known as regular reflection.

#### Question 3:

Explain lateral inversion.

Lateral inversion
It is
the effect produced by a plane mirror in reversing images from left to right.
When an object is placed in front of a plane mirror, the right side of the object appears to be on the left side of the image and left side of the object appears to be on the right side of the image. This is called lateral inversion.
Example:

Application of lateral inversion
The word AMBULANCE is written in laterally inverted text in front of the vehicle so that the person looking in the rear-view mirror may read it and give way
.

#### Question 4:

Differentiate between the image and shadow of an object.

 Image Shadow Image is formed by the reflection of light rays by an object. Image has the colour of the object. An image gives the details as well as the outline of the object. Image undergoes lateral inversion. Shadow is formed by the obstruction of light by an opaque object. Shadow is always black. Shadow gives only the outline of the object. It does not undergo lateral inversion.

#### Question 5:

What is a pin-hole camera? Explain how an image is formed in a pin-hole camera.