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Page No 195:

Question 1:

Write two examples for each of the following.

1. Natural sources of salty water ........................ ........................
2. Industrial uses of water ........................ ........................
3. Ways of saving water ........................ ........................
4. Pollutants of water ........................ ........................

Answer:

1. Natural sources of salty water Sea Oceans
2. Industrial usage of water Cleaning Cooling
3. Ways of saving water Avoiding wastage Rainwater harvesting
4. Pollutants of water Garbage Harmful chemicals

Page No 195:

Question 2:

Write one word for the following.

1. Artificial watering system .................................
2. Conversion of liquid to its vapour form .................................
3. Conversion of vapour to its liquid form .................................
4. Loss of water by leaves .................................
5. Abnormally long period of insufficient or no rainfall .................................
6. Lack of food in a region .................................
7. A condition when the ground remains submerged in water .................................
8. A structure built on a river to store and hold back water .................................

Answer:

1. Artificial watering system Irrigation
2. Conversion of liquid to its vapour form Evaporation
3. Conversion of vapour to its liquid form Condensation
4. Loss of water by leaves Transpiration
5. Abnormally long period of insufficient or no rainfall Drought
6. Lack of food in a region Famine
7. A condition when the ground remains submerged in water Flood
8. A structure built on a river to store and hold back water Dam

Page No 195:

Question 1:

Write T for the true statement and F for the false one. Correct the false statements(s).
1. Apart from irrigation and industrial use, water is also used for transportation and recreation.
2. Conversion of liquid to its vapour form is called evaporation.
3. When there is lack of food in the region, it causes epidemic.
4. Watering by hand saves a lot of water as against using a hose.
5. A tap is an answer for both drought and flood.

Answer:

1. True (T)
2. True (T)
3. False (F)
4. True (T)
5. True (T)

Page No 195:

Question 1:

How much of the Earth's water is readily available to us as fresh water?
(a) 97%
(b) 3%
(c) 75%
(d) None of these

Answer:

(d) None of these
97% of the water present on the Earth is salty and in oceans. Only 3% of the water on the Earth is fresh water, out of which 2.997% is frozen in the polar regions as ice caps, mountains and glaciers. Thus, only 0.003% of fresh water is readily available to us.   

Page No 195:

Question 2:

What is water used for drinking known as?
(a) Potable water
(b) Irrigation water
(c) Rainwater
(d) None of these

Answer:

(a) Potable water
Water that contains less amount of impurities and is fit for drinking is called potable water.

Page No 195:

Question 3:

The conversion of liquid to its vapour form happens by the process of
(a) condensation
(b) precipitation
(c) evaporation
(d) none of these

Answer:

(c) evaporation
The process of conversion of a liquid into vapour state is called evaporation.

Page No 195:

Question 4:

Which of the following processes play a key role in cloud formation and rain?
(a) Evaporation
(b) Condensation
(c) Respiration
(d) Both a and b

Answer:

(d) Both a and b
As water gets evaporated, it rises above in the form of water vapours and condenses with dust particles to form clouds. When the water droplets become heavy, they precipitate in the form of rain.

Page No 195:

Question 5:

Cloud is a cluster of
(a) tiny droplets of water
(b) water vapour
(c) steam
(d) fog

Answer:

(a) tiny droplets of water
Water vapour condenses with dust particles to form a cloud containing tiny droplets of water.



Page No 196:

Question 1:

Why is there only limited water available for use on Earth?

Answer:

About three-fourths of the Earth is covered with water. Out of this, about 97% of water, which is in seas and oceans, is too salty to be used for drinking or irrigation. Although the remaining 3% of water on the Earth is fresh water, 2.997% of this fresh water is frozen in the polar regions as ice caps, mountains and glaciers or present deep inside the surface of the Earth. Therefore, only about 0.003% of water is available for use on the Earth.

Page No 196:

Question 2:

What are some of the important sources of freshwater?

Answer:

Some of the important sources of fresh water are:
(i) river
(ii) groundwater
(iii) lake
(iv) stream
(v) soil moisture and
(vi) water vapour

Lakes are the largest source of freshwater, contributing about 50% of the total fresh water, and the second largest source is soil moisture.

Page No 196:

Question 3:

How is water important for all living beings?

Answer:

Water is important for all living beings because of the various ways in which it is used. Some of them are:

  • It is used for irrigation.
  • It is used in industries as a raw material to serve various purposes.
  • It is used for drinking, bathing and washing.
  • It is used in transportation and recreation.

Page No 196:

Question 4:

How are clouds formed?

Answer:

When the temperature of air rises, it expands and becomes light. The lighter air particles rise, taking water vapour with them. As the air rises, it starts cooling. On cooling, water vapours condense on dust particles to form millions of tiny droplets. These condensed droplets form clusters of ice crystals in the atmosphere. These clusters of tiny droplets that float in the air form a cloud.

Page No 196:

Question 5:

What is a water cycle?

Answer:

Water droplets in clouds combine to form heavy drops; these drops gradually become so heavy that they fall on earth as rain. This rainwater again evaporates, and the formation of cloud takes place. This movement of water from clouds to the earth in the form of precipitation and back to the atmosphere from the earth is called water cycle.

Page No 196:

Question 6:

Differentiate between flood and drought.

Answer:

Sometimes, because of excessive rain, rivers and canals begin overflowing and the adjoining lands start submerging. This condition is called flood. It cause epidemics and serious loss to life and property.
Drought, on the other hand, is a condition in which rain over an area is insufficient or completely absent for a long period of time. It can cause plants to die, which further can cause famine.

Page No 196:

Question 7:

What is rainwater harvesting? How can it help us to conserve water?

Answer:

Rainwater harvesting is a technique of collecting rainwater falling on the rooftops, which otherwise, would go waste. It helps in conserving rainwater by collecting the water in vessels or underground tanks from the rooftop. This conserved water can be used for various purposes after treatment.

Page No 196:

Question 8:

What do you understand by water pollution?

Answer:

Water pollution means contamination of water bodies. Water is polluted when garbage and harmful chemicals are discharged into it. These chemicals and garbage cause various diseases in plants, animals and humans and, in extreme cases, may even lead to death.

Page No 196:

Question 1:

Describe the different uses of water.

Answer:

Different uses of water are:                                        
In agriculture – Farmers depend on water for crop production. Many times, rainfall is not sufficient to water the crops, so farmers use artificial watering systems.
In industries – Industries use water as a raw material for cleaning, cooling, heating, generating electricity, etc.
For personal or domestic needs – Water is used for drinking and bathing, washing clothes and dishes, cleaning the house and watering plants.
In transportation and recreation – We use boats and ships in rivers and oceans to travel from one place to another.

Page No 196:

Question 2:

Explain how water changes its state from one form to the other.

Answer:

Water exists in three states of matter: liquid (e.g., rain water and rivers), solid (e.g., ice and snow) and gas (water vapour).
When liquid water is heated, it gets converted into water vapour (in gaseous state). This process is called evaporation; it  takes place naturally when the river water gets heated because of the sun and evaporates in the atmosphere.
Water vapour is also added to the atmosphere by plant leaves through the process of transpiration.
When water vapour condenses to form a liquid, it is known as condensation. Condensation also takes place naturally when the water vapour in the atmosphere condense to form clouds with the dust particles and precipitates back in the form of rain.

Page No 196:

Question 3:

Explain drought and flood as natural disasters.

Answer:

Sometimes, because of excessive rain, rivers and canals begin overflowing and the adjoining lands start submerging under water. This condition is called a flood; it can cause epidemics and serious threat to life and property.
However, drought is a condition in which rain over an area is insufficient or completely absent for a long period of time. This can cause plants to die, resulting in a famine.
Both these events occur naturally and can cause heavy loss to life and property. The economy of a country also gets affected.

Page No 196:

Question 4:

What is a dam? How do they help in maintaining water levels?

Answer:

A dam is a concrete structure built on a river. It has high walls and many openings for letting in and holding back water. It is helpful in maintaining the water level in the river. During heavy rainfall, when the water level rises in the rivers, the water enters the dam and gets stored in it. This helps in preventing floods. When conditions of a drought occur, i.e., when there is no rainfall in the region and the river level decreases, the gates of the dam are opened to let the stored water flow out.

Page No 196:

Question 5:

Discuss the different ways in which we can conserve water.

Answer:

Water can be conserved in the following ways:

  • We should not leave a tap running while brushing teeth.
  • We should use a wet cloth instead of a hose pipe while cleaning the car.
  • We should water plants early in the morning so that the water gets absorbed by the plants and does not get evaporated because of sunlight during the noon.
  • We should take water from a bucket while bathing instead of taking a shower.
  • We should turn off the tap tightly after every use.
  • We should repair all leaky pipes and taps.
  • We should reuse extra water for various purposes like watering plants.
  • Instead of using running water to wash utensils, we should soak them in one tub, wash them in another and rinse them in a thin trickle.
  • We should collect and store rain water so that it can be used later.



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