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Page No 12:

Question A1:

Stereotypes prevent us from recognising _________________.

Answer:

Stereotypes prevent us from recognising individual differences.

Explanation: Every individual is different and has distinctive qualities. However, when we try to set a particular type of image for a group of people, the exclusive individual traits are ignored.

Page No 12:

Question A2:

Prejudice does not encourage __________ thinking.

Answer:

Prejudice does not encourage tolerant thinking.

Explanation: Prejudice is forming a negative opinion about a person or a group. These opinions are not based on facts or experiences. A negative opinion never helps us to form an open-minded opinion.

Page No 12:

Question A3:

Discrimination is ____________ in action.

Answer:

Discrimination is prejudice in action.

Explanation: Acting against a person or a group of people based on their prejudice is discrimination.

Page No 12:

Question A4:

____________ fought for the rights of untouchables along with Mahatma Gandhi.

Answer:

B.R. Ambedkar fought for the rights of untouchables along with Mahatma Gandhi.

Explanation: B.R. Ambedkar, the father of our Indian constitution, was a staunch believer of equality. For both Gandhi and Ambedkar, bringing the untouchables at par with others was one of the most important agenda to establish a peaceful and harmonious India.

Page No 12:

Question B1:

A mentally ill person is being ill treated by a group of students.

Answer:

Once I was walking down the road and I saw that a mentally ill person was being ill-treated by a group of boys. I was offended by the sight and went up to the group to stop them from harassing the person. I tried to explain them that mentally ill people are just as much a part of our society as anyone else. We should treat them with care and help them and not discriminate just because they are different.

Page No 12:

Question B2:

While watching T.V one of your friends passes an offensive remark about a player from a particular religious community.

Answer:

On a Sunday evening, I was watching a cricket match between India and Pakistan, along with four of my friends. Suddenly, one of them passed an offensive remark about a player from Pakistan.
I was shocked to hear that because I think we live in a secular country where all religions are given equal respect. I, then, explained to my friend that we should not discriminate people on the basis of their religion. Belonging to a secular country, we should uplift the spirit of humanism.

Page No 12:

Question B3:

Your father believes technology is for boys only.

Answer:

Once I asked my father to buy me an i-pad. My father refused and told me that technology is for boys and not for girls. I was angry and explained to my father that just because the society has attributed certain characteristics to genders, it does not mean that they are true. Girls can use technology as effectively as boys and boys can cook just as well as girls. Using gender stereotypes is not right and it prevents us from understanding an individual. Names of women like Kalpana Chawla and Kiran Mazumdar Shaw are examples enough to prove that technology is not the monopoly of boys.

Page No 12:

Question B4:

Someone makes fun of a boy because of his regional accent.

Answer:

Once in my classroom, some students were making fun of a boy because of his regional accent. I did not like this and told those students that people from different regions have different languages, cultures and lifestyles. We should appreciate and celebrate this diversity and try to be more tolerant and cooperative. It is necessary to respect everyone, irrespective of their region and language.

Page No 12:

Question C1:

What is the difference between stereotype and discrimination?

Answer:

The difference between stereotype and discrimination can be explained by the following points:

Stereotype is the fixed notion or image of a group/person without any regard for their individuality. This has no rational or scientific basis.
For example, the notion that girls cannot drive is a stereotype as there are a lot of good women drivers.

Discrimination is differentiating and treating people of a particular community or a group, differently from others by giving them less advantages. This is usually done by pre-judging people and then putting their biases in action.
For example, a male child is preferred over a female child. It is thought that the girl is a burden on the parents as a lot of dowry is required during her marriage, whereas the boy stays with the family and provides them support throughout his life.

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Question C2:

What are the harmful effects of believing in stereotypes?

Answer:

 Stereotyping is setting an image about people or things based on certain characteristics or their membership to a particular group. Stereotyping is harmful for the individual and society for the following reasons:

1. We set an image of people belonging to one community and then pass on this impression to others. Thus, this establishes an unbroken chain of unestablished form of lies.

2. This image gets fixed and we start to recognise that group based on the set image. This stops us from appreciating the individual qualities.

Page No 12:

Question C3:

How does prejudice cause harm?

Answer:

Prejudice means forming an opinion about a person or thing without knowing the actual facts about them. Therefore, prejudice is harmful beacause of the following reasons:

1. By pre-judging people, we fail to recognise them as individuals having their own unique abilities.
2. It may lead to the ill-treatment of the people, which can hurt their feelings.
3. It also prevents us from being tolerant of different people.

Page No 12:

Question C4:

Give four examples of discrimination?

Answer:

Discrimination means treating people in a less favourable way just because they belong to a particular group.

Following are some of the examples of discrimination:

1. Treating a person of a lower caste badly

2. Educating boys but not girls

3. Refusing medical or any other facilities to the poor

4. Making fun of physically or mentally handicapped people

Page No 12:

Question C5:

How can you help to counter inequality?

Answer:

Inequality among people is one of the main problems that exist in almost all societies. Income, social status, religion and gender are some of the main bases of inequality. We can counter inequality in the following ways:

1. By giving equal respect to the people with low income

2. By treating people belonging to all religions equally

3. By giving equal opportunities for studies and work to all people, irrespective of their economic and social status

Page No 12:

Question D1:

Write down your opinion on the gender stereotypes.

Answer:

Gender stereotypes are very common in our country. Males and females are differentiated on the basis of certain socially defined characteristics. These characteristics have become the basis of their identity.

For example, in our society, cooking is established as a woman's task while going out to work and sustaining the family is labelled as a man's job. If a woman starts going out for work, then it is often viewed as incorrect and immoral by the society.

It is, however, important to understand that these stereotypes are limiting a person from achieving his/her goals. Even if a man likes to cook, he may not do so because of the fear of what people will say and a woman may be told not to study further as her priority is to get married.

Stereotyping is extremely dangerous as they prevent a person from expressing their individuality.

Page No 12:

Question D2:

Discuss the caste inequalities prevailing in India from ancient times.

Answer:

Caste inequalities have been prevalent in India since ancient times. Indian society was divided into a hierarchy of four castes or varnas. The social status of the person in the society depended on his birth in one of these varnas.

The so-called upper castes enjoyed all kinds of privileges while the lower castes were denied of any rights. Upper castes considered themselves as superior and called the lower castes as untouchables.

In ancient society, the upper castes were exempted from tax, were educated and had better work opportunities.

The lower castes, on the other hand, were not allowed to mingle with the upper castes, lived in separate areas, were denied education and were made to do menial works. They lived in unhygienic conditions and were often denied medical help.

This continued even after the arrival of the British. B.R. Ambedkar and Gandhiji raised their voices against this kind of discrimination and fought for equality.

Even though untouchability has been prohibited, it is still practiced in some areas of India. The Constitution of India has given certain rights to the lower classes in the hope of completely putting an end to this inhuman practice.

Page No 12:

Question D3:

How has our constitution sought to implement equality? Why is equality needed for all people?

Answer:


The Indian society has always discriminated people mainly on the basis of their caste and religion. This has been in practice since ancient times and is still prevalent in some parts of India. The framers of the Constitution of India have included certain provisions in it to deal with the problem of inequality. These provisions are as follows:

1. The weaker sections of the society (SC, ST and OBC) have been given reservations in all government institutions.

2. Untouchability has been abolished and has been made a punishable offence according to Article 17 of the constitution.

3. All major languages have been given equal recognition. The Constitution of India identifies 22 scheduled languages.

4. People of all religions have been provided the right to practice, profess and propagate their own religion.

Page No 12:

Question D4:

Give one example of stereotype, prejudice, discrimination and inequality each from your experience.

Answer:

1. Stereotype: A person from Bihar cannot speak English.

2. Prejudice: Not making friends with a politician's child because we think that he/she would be morally corrupt.

3. Discrimination: Giving all facilities to a male child and not to a female child.

4. Inequality: For doing the same work, women are paid less than men.



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