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Question A1:

Apartheid was practised in many parts of the world.

Answer:

The above statement is false.

Explanation: Apartheid was practised only in South Africa from 1940s to 1990s.
It was a system of discrimination based on race. The black population of South Africa was not given the political and economic rights as the white population. The blacks were also forced to live separately from the whites.

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Question A2:

Besides elections people also participate in a democracy by voicing their opinions through TV newspapers and demonstration.

Answer:

The statement is true.

Explanation: Since in a democracy, the government is chosen by the people, they also have the right to voice their opinion on its working through various means such as television, newspaper and demonstrations.
 

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Question A3:

Untouchability is punishable by law today.

Answer:

The statement is true.

Explanation: In 1949, the Constitution of India has abolished untouchability under article 17 and made it a punishable offence.

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Question A4:

Women always enjoyed equal rights as men.

Answer:

The statement is false.

Explanation: Earlier, women were not given several rights. Right to Vote was one of the most prominent right not extended to women. It was only after a long drawn suffrage protest that women secured the Right to Vote in 1920.

Page No 24:

Question B1:

How did the apartheid movement affect the blacks and the whites?

Answer:

The system of apartheid practised in South Africa was oppressive for the blacks as they were not given political and economic rights like the white population. They were used as cheap labour and also forced to live separately from the whites.

In order to end this oppression, the Anti-Apartheid Movement was started by Nelson Mandela in the 1960's.

This movement affected the blacks in the following ways:

1. It gave support and confidence to the blacks to fight for their rights.

2. They formed associations and protested through strikes. It prepared them to handle power and authority.

The movement also affected the whites in the following ways:

1. The whites were opposed by the blacks who got united to fight with the whites to end their oppression.

2. The whites also began receiving criticism from other countries of the world who supported the movement.

The Anti-Apartheid Movement was a 30-year-long struggle that finally succeeded in establishing democracy in South Africa. It was successful in giving the same rights and privileges to the blacks that were enjoyed by the whites.

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Question B2:

What element of democracy does the apartheid exhibit?

Answer:

The Apartheid Movement fought for equality and justice. The blacks in South Africa were discriminated, whereas the whites were given all the privileges and opportunities. The Apartheid Movement, thus, aimed at creating a democratic society based on equality.

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Question B3:

List the ways in which people participate in a democratic government.

Answer:

A democratic government is a government of the people, by the people and for the people. People participate in a democratic government in the following ways:

1. Voting in elections: People vote for the candidate of their choice for running the government.

2. Expressing their views through the media: People voice their opinion about the government in power and can question them.

3. Holding direct protests and strikes: People have the power to change the government and protest through strikes if the government does not function according to the general will of the people.

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Question B4:

How does the government ensure that everyone is treated equally?

Answer:

The government of a country ensures that everyone is treated equally without discrimination based on religion, gender, social status, income, etc. This can be explained by quoting the following examples from India:

1. The government banned untouchability: People were discriminated on the basis of their caste. People from low caste were not allowed to mix with the people of high caste and were considered untouchables. Therefore, in 1949, untouchability was made punishable by law under article 17 of the constitution.

2. The government gave women, equal rights to vote in 1930. They were also encouraged to participate in the governance of the country. Today, one-third of the seats are reserved for women in the panchayat.

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Question C1:

Give examples of a few conflicts that the Indian government might face. How does it resolve these conflicts?

Answer:

India is a land of cultural, religious, linguistic and geographical diversity. Differences based on these will inevitably lead to conflict between individuals and groups. Following are some of the most common conflicts faced by the Indian government:

1. Religious conflict - One community can object to the rights and rituals of another community, leading to conflict. An example of one such religious conflict in India is the destruction of Babri Masjid in Ayodhya in 1992 and massacres in Gujarat in 2002.

In such a case, the government sat down with the representatives of both the communities and tried to reach a solution accepted by all. The government also took the help of police to control the situation.

2. Another common problem is that of sharing the water of a river flowing between two states. For example, water distribution of river Kaveri was disputed between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

In such a case, the central government intervened and solved the dispute.

3. Language conflicts: A number of languages are spoken in India. After independence, huge debates took place against the adoption of Hindi as the official language. This plan was mostly opposed by the non-Hindi speaking states of south India.

To avoid such situations ahead, the government recognised several languages as scheduled instead of labelling any single language to be the official language.

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Question C2:

Do you think equality and justice are interrelated?

Answer:

Yes, equality and justice are interrelated. I believe so because if there is no equality, then the system that gives justice cannot function freely and fairly.

Equality is a basic element of democracy and if someone is not treated equally, then he/she has the right to demand equal treatment from the government.

The Constitution of India has taken measures to ensure equality and justice to all. It has abolished the practice of untouchability. If a person complains that he/she has been discriminated against, he/she can seek justice.

Thus, it can be stated that justice cannot be met without providing equality.

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Question D1:

Apartheid

Answer:

Apartheid - It was the name given to the system of racial discrimination that was practised in South Africa. The blacks were not given the same rights as the white and were often ill-treated. The blacks were forced to do menial work while all the good opportunities were given to the white population. Apartheid ended in 1994 because of the efforts of Nelson Mandela.

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Question D2:

Democracy

Answer:

Democracy - It is the system of governance where every adult of the country has the right to chose their own representatives through voting. The elected people are responsible for the effective running of the country and are answerable to its citizens.

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Question D3:

Participation

Answer:

Participation - It is one of the most important elements of a democratic government. Since people elect their own representative, the participation of people in elections is of utmost importance. The citizens also have the right to express their views through the media and protests. The participation of people helps the government in forming their policies.

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Question D4:

Untouchability

Answer:

Untouchability - It is the practise of discriminating against people on the basis of their caste. The lower castes were known as the untouchables and were prohibited from mixing with the upper castes. They lived in separate areas, had different drinking wells and were forced to do menial work. B. R. Ambedkar along with M. Gandhi fought for equal rights of the lower castes and succeeded in making untouchability a punishable offence.

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Question D5:

Equality

Answer:

Equality - It is an element of a democratic government according to which every person, regardless of their caste, gender and religion, has been given the same rights in the constitution. The constitution has guaranteed its citizens the Right to Equality under the fundamental rights. In any circumstance, if any effort is made to curb the Right to Equality, citizens can approach the court to seek redressal.

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Question D6:

Justice

Answer:

Justice - Along with equality and participation, justice is the third element of a democratic government. Every citizen is equal in the eyes of the law and can ask for justice if they are discriminated because of their caste, colour, gender and religion. The judiciary is responsible for guaranteeing justice to every citizen.



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