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#### Question A.1:

Whate are celestial bodies?

All the objects that we see in the sky are called celestial bodies or heavenly bodies. ​These celestial bodies include stars, planets, satellites, asteroids, meteorids and comets. The celestial bodies that do not have their own light and heat are called planets. ​On the other hand, stars are the celestial bodies that are made up of gases and have their own heat and light, which they emit in large amounts.

#### Question A.2:

To which galaxy does our solar system belong?

The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our solar system. It is also known as Akash Ganga. The word 'milky' signifies a bright band of light in the night sky where it is almost impossible to distinguish between stars. Akash Ganga can be seen as a faint band of light in a clear night sky.

#### Question A.3:

What does the solar system consist of?

The solar system consists of the Sun, eight planets, satellites and other celestial bodies known as asteroids and meteoroids. We often call it a solar family, with the Sun as its head. All the planets and celestial bodies revolve around the Sun in their respective orbits and, in turn, get influenced by the gravitational pull and heat of the Sun.

#### Question A.4:

Write the names of the eight planets in order of their distances from the sun.

 Name Distance from the Sun (In Million Kilometres) Mercury 58 Venus 108 Earth 150 Mars 228 Jupiter 778 Saturn 1427 Uranus 2870 Neptune 4497

#### Question A.5:

Which are the two types of movement of the planets?

Planets have two types of movement: rotation and revolution.

1. Rotation is the movement caused when a planet rotates on its axis; for example, the Earth rotates from west to east on its axis.
2. Revolution is the movement when a planet revolves around the Sun in a fixed path. The path of revolution of each planet is either egg-shaped or elliptical; this path is known as an orbit.

#### Question A.6:

What are the favourable conditions that make life possible on earth?

The Earth is the only planet where conditions are favourable to support life. It is neither too hot nor too cold and thus have an optimum temperature to support human existence. It has water and air, which very much essential for the survival of humans. The air is composed of life-supporting gases like oxygen, carbon dioxide and ozone. Because of these factors, the Earth is regarded as a unique planet of our solar system.

#### Question A.7:

What are asteroids? Where are they found?

​Apart from stars, planets and satellites, there are several other tiny bodies that move around the Sun. These bodies are known as asteroids. They are found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. The largest known asteroid is named Ceres.

#### Question A.8:

What are periodical comets? Give an example.

Periodical comets are the comets that orbit around the Sun and return to the innermost point of their orbits after a regular interval of time. A good example of a periodical comet is Halley's Comet, which returns to its original position after 75$-$76 years.

#### Question B.1:

Star and planet

 ​Stars Planets Stars are celestial bodies made up of gases; they are huge in size and have very high temperatures. Planets are the celestial bodies that do not have their own heat and light. They have their own heat and light, which they emit in large amounts. They are lit by the light of stars. For example, the Sun is a star. ​ For example, the Earth on which we live is a planet.

#### Question B.2:

Planet and satellite

 Planets Satellites These are celestial bodies that do not have their own heat and light; they lit by the light of stars. Satellites are celestial bodies that move around planets in the same way planets move around the Sun. They are made up of solid materials and gases. They do not have their own light. For example, the Earth is a planet. For example, the Moon is a natural satellite of the Earth.

#### Question B.3:

Comet and meteor

 Comets Meteors Comets are heavenly bodies that revolve around the Sun in an elongated orbit. Meteoroids are small rock pieces that revolve around the Sun. They are usually made up of dust, ice particles and gases. Some meteoroids enter the Earth's atmosphere with a great velocity. Most comets have a head, a nucleus and a tail. When they approach the Sun, the gases get heated up; as a result they glow. They get heated up due to the friction of the atmosphere. This causes the meteoroids to glow. Example: Halley Example: Leonid

#### Question C.1:

Mercury is the hottest planet while Neptune is the coldest.

Mercury is the hottest planet because it is nearest to the Sun and stands at a distance of 58 million kilometres from the Sun. Hence, Mercury receives the maximum amount of sunlight. ​

On the other hand, Neptune is the coldest planet because it is farthest from the Sun and stands at a distance of 4,497 million kilometres from the Sun. Hence, Neptune receives the least amount of sunlight among all planets in our solar system.

#### Question C.2:

We always see the same side of the moon.

The Moon takes 27 days and 8 hours to revolve around the Earth. This period coincides with the rotation period of the Earth on its axis, i.e. 24 hours. This is the reason we always see the same side of the Moon.

#### Question C.3:

There is no possibility of life on the moon.

There is no possibility of life on the Moon because of the absence of the essentials of life on it, i.e. air and water. Also, there is no atmosphere around it, due to which days are very hot and nights are very cold. This makes the conditions unfavourable for the existence of life on the Moon.

#### Question D.1:

The temperature of the surface of the sun is about

a. 5,000°C
b. 5,500°C
c. 6,000°C
d. 6,500°C

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: The Sun is composed of extremely hot and burning gases like helium and hydrogen. The fusion of hydrogen molecules into helium molecules results in the release of a huge amount of energy and heat that raise the temperature of the Sun up to 6,000 degree Centigrade.

#### Question D.2:

Which of the following planets has a reddish appearance?

a. Venus
b. Mars
c. Jupiter
d. Saturn

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: Mars has a reddish appearance because of the presence of iron oxides. Mars is generally referred to as the Red Planet of our solar system.

#### Question D.3:

Which of the following planets rotates in a clockwise direction?

a. Mercury
b. Venus
c. Jupiter
d. Neptune

The correct answer is option​ (b).

Explanation: Venus is the only planet in our solar system that rotates clockwise. All other planets rotate anticlockwise.

#### Question D.4:

Halley's Comet appears after every

a. 70 years
b. 72 years
c. 74 years
d. 76 years

The correct answer is option​ (d).

Explanation: Halley's Comet appears after a regular interval of 76 years. It last appeared in the solar system in 1986.

#### Question E.1:

All heavenly bodies are called cerebral bodies.

All heavenly bodies are called celestial bodies.

Explanation: Celestial bodies are the bodies that are found in the universe. These include planets, satellites, meteors and meteoroids.

#### Question E.2:

The light of the sun takes about eight seconds to reach the earth.

The light of the Sun takes about eight minutes to reach the Earth.

Explanation: Since the Earth is very far from the Sun, it takes light around eight minutes to reach the Earth's surface.

#### Question E.3:

The star nearest to the sun is Ceres.

The star nearest to the sun is Proxima Centauri.

Explanation:​ The Sun is the nearest star to the Earth, but Proxima Centauri is the second nearest star to the Earth and the nearest star to the Sun.

#### Question E.4:

Moon is not the satellite of earth.

The Moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth.

Explanation: Satellites are the bodies that revolve around planets. The Moon is the only natural satellite of our planet Earth.

#### Question F.1:

The largest planet in the solar system.              __________

The largest planet in our solar system is Jupiter.

Explanation: The mass of Jupiter is almost 300 times that of Earth. The diameter of Jupiter is 11 times that of Earth. It is the largest planet of our solar system.

#### Question F.2:

The path taken by the planets to go around the sun.          ____________

The path taken by the planets to go around the Sun is known as the orbit.

Explanation: The path of revolution of each planet around the Sun is either egg-shaped or elliptical. This path is known as the orbit.

#### Question F.3:

The first man in space.                        ____________

The first man to visit space was Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin.

Explanation: Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin was the Russian Soviet cosmonaut who travelled in the outer space in the spacecraft Vostok in 1961.

#### Question F.4:

The planet with a system of rings.                    ____________

The planet with a notable system of rings is Saturn.

Explanation:​ Large and colourful rings form the orbiting disc of Saturn. Apart from Saturn, there are other planets that possess planetary rings. These are Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune, but their rings have less visibility and they are not very prominent.

#### Question F.5:

The number of planets that rotate in a clockwise direction.                 ____________

There are two planets that rotate clockwise: Venus and Uranus.

Explanation:​ Except Venus and Uranus, all planets in our solar system rotate anticlockwise.

#### Question F.6:

Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are collectively called this.               ____________

Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are collectively known as inner planets in our solar system.

Explanation: They are named inner planets because they are the nearest to the sun. There is huge difference in planetary conditions of these planets and the rest of the planets of our solar system.

#### Question F.7:

The largest asteroid.                                ____________

The largest asteroid known is Vesta.

Explanation: Though Ceres is way larger in mass than any other asteroid, since it has been listed among dwarf planets, the largest asteroid is Vesta.

#### Question F.8:

The fictitious planet where Superman came from.                    ____________

Krypton is a fictitious planet of the DC Universe from where the fictitious character Superman has come.

#### Question G:

Diagram of the solar system.