Ratna Sagar Civics Solutions Solutions for Class 6 Social science Chapter 1 Unity In Diversity are provided here with simple step-by-step explanations. These solutions for Unity In Diversity are extremely popular among Class 6 students for Social science Unity In Diversity Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams. All questions and answers from the Ratna Sagar Civics Solutions Book of Class 6 Social science Chapter 1 are provided here for you for free. You will also love the ad-free experience on Meritnation’s Ratna Sagar Civics Solutions Solutions. All Ratna Sagar Civics Solutions Solutions for class Class 6 Social science are prepared by experts and are 100% accurate.

Page No 62:

Question A.1:

Manufacturing is an example of this type of occupation.

a. tertiary
b. primary
c. secondary
d. basic

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: Occupations can be divided into following three types: 
  • Primary occupation, which includes agriculture, mining and quarrying
  • Secondary occupation, which includes manufacturing
  • Tertiary occupation, which includes services, trade and commerce and banking

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Question A.2:

Nearly two-fifths of all rural families in our country are

a. traders
b. manufacturers
c. managers
d. agricultural labourers

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d). 

Explanation: The major composition of our population includes the agricultural labourers who work on the lands of other people. They are either landless or have very less land.

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Question A.3:

In the market, agricultural produce is largely controlled by

a. the public
b. landowners
c. maliks
d. private intermediaries

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: The agricultural produce is sold by the farmers in the markets (mandis). These markets are mostly controlled by the private intermediaries. They look after credit as well distribution of the produce.

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Question A.4:

Landless villagers who earn their livelihood from working on other people's land are called

a. kisans
b. mazdoors
c. tenants
d. landowners

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: The agricultural labourers are the landless villagers who work on other people's fields. They are also known as mazdoors. They earn their living through wages, either in cash or in kind.

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Question A.5:

To earn money throughout the year people sometimes

a. sell things
b. trade goods
c. shop
d. migrate

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

ExplanationThe agricultural labourers are either landless or own very less land. As a result, they are unable to earn money throughout the year and this forces them to migrate to other places in search of jobs. 

Page No 62:

Question B.1:

Flowers such as ___________ and __________ are grown all over Dumri.

Answer:

Flowers such as marigold and rose are grown all over Dumri.​


Explanation: Dumri is a small village in Bihar. The people there earn their living through several means. They grow flowers like marigold and rose and sell them in the market to earn money.

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Question B.2:

The person who helps others to cross the river is called the _____________

Answer:

The person who helps others to cross the river is called the mallah.

Explanation: The villagers are helped by the mallahs to cross the river. In addition to this, they catch fishes from the river to earn their living.

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Question B.3:

Crops can fail if ____________ is not good.

Answer:

Crops can fail if monsoon is not good.​


Explanation: A bad monsoon may result into the failure of crops in India is it is a country that does not have much infrastructure available for irrigation facilities; therefore, most of the farmers are directly dependent upon monsoon for their crops.

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Question B.4:

Fishermen go through a difficult time during the ___________.

Answer:

Fishermen go through a difficult time during the monsoons.

Explanation: Fishermen go through a difficult time during the monsoons because the monsoon period is the breeding time of the fishes and the continuous rainfall does not allow them to go for fishing for few months. 

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Question B.5:

_____________ are the working peasants why may be small landowners or tenants.

Answer:

Kisans are the working peasants who may be small landowners or tenants.​


Explanation: Kisans or the farmers are the working peasants who may be small landowners or tenants. These lands are given to them by the maliks. The difference between the maliks and the kisans lies in the size of the land they own. 

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Question C.1:

Name the occupation-wise groups into which people can be divided.

Answer:

People can be divided into the following three groups on the basis of their occupation:
  • Primary occupations, for example, agriculture, mining and quarrying
  • Secondary occupations, for example, manufacturing
  • Tertiary occupations, for example, services, trade and commerce and banking

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Question C.2:

Why do farmers become landless?

Answer:

Farmers borrow money from the moneylenders and traders to buy seeds, pesticides and fertilisers. When crops get ruined due to bad monsoons, poor quality of seeds or pest attacks, the farmers are unable to return the borrowed money. In order to repay the money to the lenders, they are forced to mortgage or sell their lands. Hence, they become landless.

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Question C.3:

Apart from farming what are the other Sources of income in rural areas?

Answer:

In rural areas, the main occupation of people is agriculture. The other sources of income are as follows:
  • Some people are engaged in masonry, pottery, brick making, basket making and carpentry.
  • There are also teachers, barbers, washermen and mechanics to provide services to the people.
  • There are shopkeepers who sell the necessary goods and groceries like sweets, meat, eggs, bangles, medicines, clothes and fertilisers.

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Question C.4:

Why do people migrate? Give two examples.

Answer:

In India, people in the rural areas remain unemployed for seasons. Therefore, they migrate to the cities

1. in search of jobs
2. to enhance their standard of living

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Question C.5:

Who are the power holders in the new power structure that emerged in the villages today?

Answer:

The power holders in the new power structure that has recently emerged in the villages can be classified into the following four groups:
  1. People who have power based on ownership or control of land
  2. People who have power based on caste
  3. People who have power based on numbers.
  4. People who have power based on the positions they hold in the Panchayat or other local bodies.

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Question C.6:

How can a loan taken by a farmer lead him to losing his land?

Answer:

Small farmers often take loan from rich landlords, moneylenders, traders or shopkeepers to buy seeds, fertilisers and pesticides. Sometimes, due to bad monsoons or pest attacks, their crop does not turn out good. This forces them to borrow even more money. They have to repay the loan by mortgaging and selling their land, thus, loosing it.

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Question D.1:

What work does Sugana do other than working on the land?

Answer:

Sugana was an agricultural labourer in Dumri, Bihar. She used to work on the land of her malik. Apart from working on the land, she used to do other household chores like cooking for her family, washing clothes and cleaning her house. She used to collect firewood and  draw water from the well along with other women of the village. This is how she had to look after other chores even while working on the land.

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Question D.2:

Why do farmers need to borrow money?

Answer:

Small farmers in the villages do not have enough money, so they borrow money from the moneylenders, traders and rich farmers. They borrow money  for the following reasons:

1. The farmers need to buy seeds, fertilisers and pesticides to grow their crops .
2. At times, the crops get ruined due to bad monsoons, poor quality of seeds or pest attacks. In order to repay the loan, the farmers borrow again.
3. Farmers borrow money to be able to bear the expenses of any marriage in the family.

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Question D.3:

Define−Malik, mazdoor, Kisan.

Answer:

Malik: He/she is the landowner. There are two types of maliks, that is, the absentee landlords, who stay in cities and the residents of the village in which they own their land. They derive their income from the property rights. They may also give away a small piece of land either for sale or on rent.

Mazdoor: The agricultural labourers or peasants who work on other people's lands are known as mazdoors. They may or may not own any land. They are paid their wages either in cash or in kind.

Kisan: The farmers are also known as kisans. The size of land that a kisan owns is very small. His family members work on the fields. The income of a kisan is very less. Therefore, he/she has to work as agricultural labourer on other people's land.

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Question D.4:

Write a short note on the power structure in villages.

Answer:

The rural areas and their working is based on the prevalent power structure. A new power structure has recently emerged in the villages. Based on the classification of the power holders, power structures are divided into following groups:


1. Those who have power based on the ownership and control of land. Therefore, maliks or landowners are the most powerful.
2. Those who have power based on their caste. The people of higher castes enjoy privileges that are denied to people of lower castes.
3. Those who have power based on numerical strength or number.
4. Those who have power because of the position they hold in the Panchayati Raj System.



Page No 63:

Question D.5:

Chhotu is a landless farmer. He often needs to borrow money. Why?

Answer:

Chhotu, like many other small farmers in the village, needs to borrow money from the money lenders, traders and rich farmers. This is because of the following reasons:

1. He borrows money to buy seeds, fertilisers and pesticides to grow crops.
2. If the crop gets ruined due to pest attacks, bad monsoons or poor quality of seeds, he needs to grow the crop again. So he borrows money and this way, he is liable to pay double debt.
3. He needs money to be able to bear his family expenses.

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Question D.6:

Why do you think that there is seasonal unemployment in villages?

Answer:

There is seasonal unemployment in villages due to the following reasons:

1. The fishermen cannot go fishing during the monsoon season as the turns real rough. Moreover, this is the breeding time of fishes.
2. The farmers remain unemployed because many crops are seasonal.
3. The crops get destroyed due to bad monsoon. This does not allow the farmer to earn during this season.



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