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#### Question A.1:

Which one of the following is the true representation of earth?

a. Map
b. Globe
c. Plan
d. Sketch

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: A globe is a correct spatial representation of the Earth, as it reflects the true shape and bearing of the Earth according to scale.

#### Question A.2:

Which one of the following maps shows a very large area with less details?

a. Large scale
b. Thematic
c. Physical
d. Small scale

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: Scale is inversely proportional to the details of an area being depicted. Thus, a small-scale map covers a large area and provides few details about it.

#### Question A.3:

Which one of the following is not an example of a map?

a. Thematic
b. Physical
c. Political
d. Statement

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: A map is a pictorial representation of an area. A statement does not fall in this category.

#### Question A.4:

Which of the following is not shown on a relief or physical map?

a. Mountains
b. Rivers
c. Crops
d. Valleys

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: Crops are not a part of physical maps, as they are not a unique physical geographical feature.

#### Question A.5:

The maps showing distribution of crops are ________ maps.

a. small scale
b. physical
c. thematic
d. political

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: Crops are depicted on thematic maps according to their production, varieties and areas under cultivation.

#### Question A.6:

Which of the following is not a part of a map drawn on a flat surface?

a. Globe
b. Scale
c. Directions
d. Conventional symbols

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: Globe is a spherical representation of the Earth. Thus, it is not drawn on a flat surface.​

#### Question A.7:

Which of the following is not an intermediate direction?

a. North-south
b. South-east
c. North-east
d. North-west

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: North-south is not an intermediate direction, as there is no continuity in the two directions.

#### Question A.8:

The blue colour on the map shows

a. clouds
b. water bodies
c. glaciers
d. plains

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: Blue is synonymous with water. Thus, the colour blue is used to depict water bodies on maps.

#### Question B:

1. We cannot see the entire __________ at the same time.
2. The origin of the word 'map' is from a ___________ word.
3. Scale is the ratio between _________ and ___________.
4. A plan is drawn on a __________ scale.

1. We cannot see the entire Earth at the same time.

Explanation: The Earth is spherical in shape, so we can see it only till to the horizon.

2. The origin of the word 'map' is from a Latin word.

Explanation: The word 'map' has been derived from the Latin word 'mappo,' which means a napkin.

3. Scale is the ratio between map distance and ground distance.

Explanation: A scale takes into account two kinds of measurements: map distance, which is the distance between two points on a map, and the ground distance, which is the distance between two points on the ground.

4. A plan is drawn on a large scale.

Explanation: A plan provides the exact layout of a small area with every detail such as the length and breadth of  a room. To show all details, a plan needs to be drawn on a large scale.

#### Question C:

1. It is easy to draw an absolutely correct map of the world. ___________
2. A map can be drawn even for a small area on the earth. __________
3. The sign and symbols on a map are called conventional symbols. __________
4. A map drawn without a scale is called a sketch. __________

1. This statement is false.
Explanation: It is not easy to draw an absolutely correct map of the world because of the spherical shape of the Earth. A number of factors such as size and angle need to be perfect to represent the exact shape of the Earth.

2. This statement is true.
Explanation: A large-scale map can be used to depict even a small area of the Earth. Such a map can provide the minutest details of any place.

3. This statement is true.
Explanation: Signs and symbols used on a map are called conventional symbols. Conventional symbols depict various features such as railway lines, bridges, roads and poles.

4. This statement is true.
Explanation: A map without a scale is called a sketch. A sketch is the blueprint of the final map.

#### Question D:

 Column A Column B 1. Small scale map a. Guide maps 2. Large scale map b. Roads and railways 3. Physical map c. Wall maps 4. Thematic map d. Mountains and rivers

1.Small-scale maps: Wall maps
2. Large-scale maps: Guide maps
3.
Physical maps: Mountains and rivers
4. Thematic maps: Roads and railways

Explanation:
1. A wall map typically depicts a large area like a country or the world. Hence, it is a small-scale map.
2. Guide maps depict small specified areas. Therefore, they are large-scale maps.
3. Physical maps depict physical features like mountains, rivers, plateaus and deserts.
4. Thematic maps depict specific information like roads, railways and crops.

#### Question E:

Distinguish between the following.

1. Globe and map
2. Large scale and small scale map
3. Physical map and thematic map
4. Map distance and ground distance

 Globe Map It is a small man-made model of the Earth. It is a representation of the Earth’s surface or a part of it on a flat surface. It is three-dimensional. It is two-dimensional.

 Small-Scale Map Large-Scale Map This map shows a very large area with few details. This map shows a very small area in detail. Examples include maps in atlases and wall maps. Examples include guide maps.

 Physical Map Thematic Map It shows relief features present on the Earth’s surface like mountains, plateaus and rivers. It shows specific type of information such as roads, railways, air routes and patterns of population.

 Ground Distance Map Distance It is the distance between any two points on the ground, measured along a straight line It is the distance between any two points on the map, measured along a straight line

#### Question F:

Explain the following terms (in 30 words).

1. Map
2. Distance
3. Scale
4. R.F.
5. Direction
6. Cardinal directions
7. Sketch
8. Plan

1. Map: It is a representation of the Earth’s surface or a part of it on a flat surface.

2. Distance: It means the space between two places.

3. Scale: It is the ratio between the map distance and the ground distance of a map.

4. RF: It stands for representative fraction in which the ratio between the map distance and the ground distance is denoted by a fraction.

5. Direction: It is the course or orientation along which an object moves.

6. Cardinal directions: North, south, east and west are known as the four cardinal directions.

7. Sketch: A map without a scale is known as a sketch.

8. Plan: It is a large-scale map of a very small area showing minute details.

#### Question G.1:

What is a man-made model of the earth called?

A small man-made model of the Earth is called a globe. It is spherical in shape and is the most accurate depiction of the Earth.

#### Question G.2:

What is a map showing the boundaries of countries called?

A map showing boundaries of countries is known as a political map.

#### Question G.3:

Name the system of measurement followed in India.

In India, the metric system of measurement is followed. Thus, distance is measured in metres and kilometres.

#### Question G.4:

The direction on a map is shown with reference to which direction?

All directions on a map are shown with reference to the north direction.

#### Question G.5:

Name the main cardinal directions.

The four cardinal directions are north, south, east and west.

#### Question G.6:

What is vertically above the North Pole?

The Pole Star is located vertically above the North Pole.

#### Question G.7:

What is the Great Bear constellation called in India?

The Great Bear constellation in India is known as the Saptarishi.

#### Question H.1:

What are the various components of a map?

A map is a representation of the Earth’s surface or a part of it on a flat surface. There are three main components of a map: distance, direction and conventional signs or symbols.

#### Question H.2:

How are maps more helpful than a globe?

A map is better than a globe because of the following reasons:

• A map is easier to carry.
• More details can be shown on a map.
• A map can be made for a part of the Earth.

#### Question H.3:

Why do we need maps?

We need maps because they are useful in understanding various features present on the surface of the Earth. Different types of maps are used for conveying and extracting information on various purposes. Also, unlike globes, maps are more convenient to make, carry and study.

#### Question H.4:

How can the Pole Star help in finding direction?

The Pole Star can be used to find the north direction. This is because the Pole Star always lies vertically above the North Pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, the constellation known as the Great Bear revolves around the Pole Star.

#### Question I.1:

What are the main limitations of a globe?

The main limitations of a globe are as follows:

• It is difficult to carry.
• The space on it is limited and large-scale details cannot be shown on it.
• It cannot be made for a part of the Earth.
• Details of geographic features cannot be properly shown on it.

#### Question I.2:

Explain the purpose of different types of maps.

Different types of maps are used by different people according to their needs.
On the basis of scale, maps are of two types:

• Large-scale maps: These maps show very small areas in detail.
• Small-scale maps: These maps show very large areas with fewer details.
On the basis of function, maps are of three types:
• Physical maps: They show relief features present on the Earth’s surface like mountains, plateaus and rivers.
• Political maps: They show boundaries of countries.
• Thematic maps: They show specific type of information such as roads, railways, air routes and patterns of population.

#### Question I.3:

Describe the different methods of showing scale on a map.

Scales on a map can be shown with the help of the following methods:

• By a statement: In this method, the scale is given in words, for example, one centimetre is to one kilometre.
• By a numerical fraction: In this method, the ratio of the map distance to the ground distance is given in the form of a fraction, for example, 1/1,00,000.
• By a graphic or linear scale: In this method, the map distance is shown with the help of a straight line that is divided into parts known as primary divisions and sub-parts known as secondary divisions.

#### Question I.4:

How can we locate directions on a map?

The direction on a map can be identified through an arrow that points towards north. It is known as the north line. Other directions on the map are derived through reference to this line.

#### Question I.5:

What are the advantages of a mariner's compass?

A mariner’s compass consists of a magnetic needle, which aligns itself with the magnetic field of the Earth. This needle always points to the ​northsouth direction. Using this compass, all other directions, relative to the northsouth direction, can be found out. This compass, therefore, helps sailors and mariners in navigation in seas and oceans.

#### Question I.6:

Why is it not possible to draw an accurate map?

A map is a representation of the Earth’s surface or a part of it on a flat surface. But a map also has its limitations. The biggest limitation is the portrayal of the spherical surface of the Earth on the flat paper. It hinders the drawing of an accurate map. Distortions of shapes, sizes and areas and discontinuity occur in such depictions. Therefore, we have different types of maps to suit the requirements of people.

#### Question I.7:

How do symbols and signs help us in reading maps?

Maps are used for recording and showing information such as political boundaries, relief features and social and cultural features. But there is not enough space on a map to show the actual size and shape of features such as mountains, peaks, rivers and forests. Therefore, different colours, signs, symbols, and letters are used to present information on maps. These signs and symbols thus help in keeping the map clean, making it easy to read and interpret.

#### Question I.8:

Why is a book of maps called an atlas?

A map is a representation of the Earth’s surface or a part of it on a flat surface. Mercator and Hondt were the first to publish a collection of maps in the form of a book. Its cover had a picture of the Greek mythological giant Atlas holding the Earth. Since then, a book of maps is known as an atlas.

#### Question I.9:

Why does R.F. have the universal application in map making?