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Page No 98:

Question A.1:

Which one of the following cities enjoys equable climate?

a. Chandigarh
b. Jammu
c. Bhopal
d. Kochi

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: Water bodies exert a moderating influence on the climate of the places that are near them. Kochi lies in the southwest coast; therefore, it experiences equable climate.  

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Question A.2:

Which one of the following cities enjoys extreme type of climate?

a. Chennai
b. Lucknow
c. Panaji
d. Thiruvananthapuram

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: Coastal areas experience equable climate because of the presence of water bodies around the peninsula. The interior parts of the country experience extreme climate. Lucknow, which is situated in the interior of India, witnesses extreme climatic conditions.

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Question A.3:

Chennai receives most of the rainfall during the ________ season.

a. Summer
b. Monsoon
c. winter
d. retreating monsoon

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: From September to November, monsoon winds start retreating. Thus, the weather becomes extreme and is characterised by high heat and humidity. The cyclones arising in the Bay of Bengal cause rainfall in the Coromandel Coast of Tamil Nadu. Hence, Chennai receives most of its rainfall during the retreating monsoon.

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Question A.4:

Mango showers are experienced in

a. Uttar Pradesh
b. Bihar
c. Karnataka
d. Assam

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

​Explanation: Pre-monsoon showers are experienced during the end of the summer season. In Kerala and Karnataka, they cause the early ripening of mangoes. Hence, these showers are referred to as mango showers.

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Question A.5:

Pre-monsoon showers are called kalbaisakhi in

a. West Bengal
b. Tamil Nadu
c. Madhya Pradesh
d. Karnataka

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: In West Bengal, the pre-monsoon showers are characterised by strong winds and heavy rainfall. These are experienced with the approach of the summer season and are called kalbaisakhi.

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Question A.6:

The rainy season in many parts of India is from

a. May to July
b. April to August
c. June to September
d. July to November

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: Monsoon in India starts from June; the whole country experiences the weather within a few weeks. It continues till the month of September. The time period varies depending on the location of a place.

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Question A.7:

What is the average annual rainfall in our country?

a. 10 cm
b. 120 cm
c. 140 cm
d. 800 cm

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: The distribution of rainfall depends upon a variety of factors like relief features, direction of winds and distance from a sea. The average annual rainfall in India, i.e. 120 cm, is the highest in the world.

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Question A.8:

The world's highest annual rainfall is recorded in

a. Mawsynram
b. Jaisalmer
c. Mumbai
d. Kanniyakumari

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: The distribution of rainfall varies from one place to another. Mawsynram near Cherrapunji in Meghalaya has recorded the highest annual rainfall of 1142 cm.

Page No 98:

Question B:

1. ___________ and ____________ are two important elements of climate.
2. ___________ and ____________ are the coldest months in many parts of India.
3. Rainfall in India gradually decreases from _________ to ___________.
4. The monsoon start retreating from the month of ____________.

Answer:

1. Temperature and rainfall are two important elements of climate.

Explanation: The two elements of climate are temperature and rainfall. There is a considerable variation in both the elements not only from one place to another but also from one season to another.

2. January and February are the coldest months in many parts of India.

Explanation: During the cold weather season, most parts of the country witness a drop in temperature. January and February are the coldest months in most parts of the country. At some places, temperature goes below 0 oC.

3. â€‹Rainfall in India gradually decreases from south to north and east to west.

Explanation: The distribution of rainfall depends on a range of factors. India receives most of its rainfall from the southwest monsoon winds. But the amount of rainfall decreases as we move from south to north and from east to west. Also, reduction in rainfall is seen when we go from coastal areas to the interiors of the country.

4. â€‹The monsoon starts retreating from the month of mid-September.

Explanation: The monsoon winds start retreating from mid-September and continues till the month of November. The process is very slow. It causes rainfall in the Coromandel Coast of Tamil Nadu and some other areas.



Page No 99:

Question C:

1. India experiences topical monsoon type of climate. __________
2. The coastal areas experience extreme climate. ______________
3. During the winter season the temperature decreases from north to south. ________
4. In the summer season, loo blows over the coastal plains. __________
5. The cyclones are experienced during the south-west monsoon season. ________

Answer:

1. The given statement is true.

Explanation: India experiences tropical monsoon type of climate. It has distinct hot and cold weather seasons. The monsoon season starts roughly from May.

2. â€‹The statement is false.
​
Explanation: Coastal areas experience moderate climate because of the presence of water bodies, but the interior parts of the country experience extreme climatic conditions.

3. â€‹The statement is false.
​
Explanation: During the cold weather season, the Northern Plains have a very low temperature. But at the same time, south India has equable climate. So, the temperature decreases from south to north.

4. â€‹The statement is false.
​
Explanation: Loo is a hot, dust-laden wind that blows over the Northern Plains. It is a very dry wind; hence, it does not bring any rainfall.

5. â€‹The statement is false.
​
Explanation: From September to November, monsoon winds start retreating. Thus, the weather becomes extreme with high heat and humidity. The cyclones arising from the Bay of Bengal cause rainfall in the Coromandel Coast of Tamil Nadu.

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Question D:

  Column A   Column B
1. Winter season a. South-west monsoon
2. Summer Season b. Bay of Bengal
3. Rainy Season c. North-east monsoon
4. Cyclones d. Season
5. Mausim e. Dust storms

Answer:

The correct match is given as under:
 

Column A Column B
Winter season Northeast monsoon
Summer season Dust storms
Rainy season Southwest monsoon
Cyclones Bay of Bengal
Mausim Season


Explanation: 

1. In the month of September, monsoon winds start retreating from the northeast direction. Hence, they are termed as northeast monsoon winds.

2. In the summer season, the north Indian lands witness hot and dusty winds. These are termed as loo. They cause dust storms, which are experienced at least once in the daytime.

3. India receives most of its rainfall from the southwest monsoon. It has two branches: the one originating from the Arabian Sea and the other originating from the Bay of Bengal.

4. From September to November, monsoon winds start retreating. Thus, the weather becomes extreme with high heat. The cyclones rising in the Bay of Bengal cause rainfall in the Coromandel Coast of Tamil Nadu.

5. The term 'monsoon' is derived from the Arabic term 'mausim,' which implies season. India experiences the monsoon type of climate.

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Question E:

1. Cycle of seasons
2. Cold weather season
3. Hot weather season
4. Mango showers
5. Retreating monsoon
6. Variation in rainfall

Answer:

1. Temperature variance, rainfall distribution and monsoon winds cause four different season cycles in India. The names of the main seasons in India are as follows:

  • Cold weather season - Mid-November to mid-March
  • Hot weather season - Mid-March to May end
  • Southwest monsoon season - June to September
  • Retreating monsoon season - October to mid-November

2. The cold weather season lasts from November to March. During this period, most parts of the country experience a very low temperature. This temperature decreases as we move from south to north. January and February are the coldest months of the year.

3. The hot weather season lasts from April to May. The temperature remains high throughout the country. The Northern Plains witness hot and dusty winds, which cause dust storms.

4. Towards the end of the hot weather season and before the onset of the monsoon season, few parts of the country receive pre-monsoon showers. These pre-monsoon showers in Kerala and Karnataka cause the early ripening of mangoes. Hence, these showers are referred to as mango showers.

5. The monsoon winds start retreating from mid-September and continues till November. The process is very slow. It causes rainfall in the Coromandel Coast of Tamil Nadu and some other areas.​ During this period, the hot, wet season changes to the cold, dry season.

6. The distribution of rainfall is not uniform. It varies not only from one place to another but also from season to season. Most of the rainfall received is from the southwest monsoon. But the amount of the rainfall decreases as we move from south to north and from east to west. Also, decrease in rainfall is seen when we go from coastal areas to the interiors of the country.

Page No 99:

Question F:

1. Where do the winter cyclones originate?
2. What is loo?
3. Name the branches of the south-west monsoon winds.
4. During which season do cyclones develop in the Bay of Bengal?
5. Name the wettest place in India.

Answer:

1. The winter cyclones originate in the Mediterranean Sea; they cause mild rainfall in the Northern Plains and snowfall in the Himalayas.

2. Loo are the hot and dust-laden winds that blow in north India. They mostly originate in the state of Rajasthan. These winds are dry; hence, they do not cause any rainfall.

3. The branches of southwest monsoon winds are as follows:

  • The Bay of Bengal branch
  • The Arabian Sea branch
4. During the retreating season, cyclones originate in the Bay of Bengal; these cyclones create a great havoc and cause loss of life and property in coastal areas.

5. The wettest place in India is Mawsynram. It is located in Meghalaya near Cherrapunji. The place has recorded the highest annual rainfall of 1142 cm.

Page No 99:

Question G:

1. Name the main season in India and their duration in the year.
2. What do you know about the general temperature conditions during the cold weather season?
3. What is the weather condition in the northern plains during the hot weather season?
4. How is monsoon season different from the retreating monsoon season?

Answer:

1. The names of the main seasons in India are as follows:
     i) Cold weather season - Mid-November to mid-March
     ii) Hot weather season - Mid-March to May end
    iii) Southwest monsoon season - June to September
     iv) Retreating monsoon season - October to mid-November

2. During the winter season, temperature remains low throughout the country. This temperature is very low in the northern region and increases as we go towards the south. January and February witness the lowest temperature during this season. Also, the mountains of the north experience heavy snowfall.

3. The weather of the Northern Plains during the hot weather season is mostly dry and hot. The hot and dust-laden winds called loo blow in the Northern Plains. Towards the end of the season, few places receive pre-monsoon showers.

4. The monsoon season is hot and wet and extends from June to September. The retreating monsoon season is cold and dry and extends from the middle of September to November. Only few parts of the country receive rainfall in the retreating monsoon season; the monsoon season, on the other hand, brings rainfall to most parts of the country.

Page No 99:

Question H.1:

What are the main factors affecting the climate of India?

Answer:

The main factors that affect the climate of India are as follows:

1. Location: India is divided into almost two equal halves by the Tropic of Cancer. Hence, half part is tropical, while other half experiences subtropical climate. The Himalayas protect India from cold Siberian winds and is one of the reasons behind the rainfall here.
2. Relief: During summers, most of the country experiences high temperatures except the Himalayas, which experience a relatively low temperature. Also, the places that are near the sea experience moderate climate both in summers and winters.
3. Distance from the sea: The coastal areas experience moderate climate because of the presence of water bodies, but the interior parts of the country experience extreme climatic conditions.

Page No 99:

Question H.2:

How do the Himalayas influence the climate of India?

Answer:

The Himalayas have a considerable influence on the climate of the Indian subcontinent. On one hand, they protect the Indian mainland from the chilly winds of Siberia. Had they not been there, the Indian lands would have been frozen and covered with snow throughout the year. The Himalayas also act as a barrier to the monsoon winds coming from seas. Hence, they are an important cause of rainfall in India. They help in maintaining both the elements of climate, i.e. temperature and rainfall.

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Question H.3:

Describe the monsoon winds.

Answer:

Monsoon winds are moisture-laden winds originating from a sea and moving towards the Indian peninsula. India experiences most of its rain from the southwest monsoon winds. They are divided by the Indian peninsula into two parts: the one that originates from the Arabian Sea and the other that originates from the Bay of Bengal. They bring a huge amount of moisture with them, which causes rainfall in most parts of the country. They are very irregular and erratic and causes floods and drought at two places at the same time.

Page No 99:

Question H.4:

Describe the general distribution of rainfall in India.

Answer:

Rainfall is not evenly distributed across the Indian subcontinent. The fact that one part of the country experiences floods while the other experiences droughts proves unequal rainfall distribution across the country. The average annual rainfall is 120 cm. But the distribution depends on factors like relief features, direction of moisture-laden winds and the location of a place and its distance from the sea. Meghalaya receives more than 800 cm of annual rainfall, while some parts of Rajasthan receive only 10 cm of annual rainfall. 

Page No 99:

Question H.5:

Why do some parts of India experience floods and droughts at the same time?

Answer:

The distribution of rainfall is highly uneven in India. Meghalaya receives 800 cm of annual rainfall and Rajasthan receives 10 cm of annual rainfall. There are several reasons for the same. For example, Rajasthan has high temperature with low humidity, so the monsoon winds are not seen here in this season; this ultimately leads to droughts here. On the other hand, the northeastern states witness high humidity due to dense forests. So, they receive more rainfall. This is the reason some parts of India experience floods and droughts at the same time.

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Question H.6:

Why do the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu get rainfall during the winter season?

Answer:

Though most of the country gets rainfall during summers, the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu receive rainfall during winters. This is because of the retreating monsoon, which extends from the middle of September to the middle of November. During this period, cyclones originate in the Bay of Bengal, which make the weather oppressive, causing high humidity. These cyclones hit the Tamil Nadu coast after picking moisture from the Indian Ocean and cause rainfall.

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Question H.7:

Why do the coastal areas enjoy equable climate?

Answer:

Winds move from a high-pressure region to a low-pressure zone. During summers, high pressure develops over the coastal lands, so the cold winds move from the sea to the land, reducing the temperature of the region. The reverse happens in winters when high pressure develops over the sea. This way an equable temperature is maintained in the coastal areas in which sea breeze plays a very important role.



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