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Page No 89:

Question A.1:

Which one of the following is the highest mountain peak in India?

a. Godwin Austin
b. Kanchenjunga
c. Nanda Devi
d. Dhaulagiri

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: K2 or Godwin Austen is the highest mountain peak in India. It is a snow-covered peak of the Karakoram mountain range extending between the Pamir Knot and the Indus river in Jammu and Kashmir. 

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Question A.2:

Which one of the following peaks is not in India?

a. Kanchenjunga
b. Nanga Parbat
c. Mt Everest
d. Nanda Devi

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: All the given mountain peaks are located in India except Mount Everest, which is located in Nepal. It is the highest peak in the world at a height of 8,848 metres.

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Question A.3:

The Great Indian desert is located in which state?

a. Rajasthan
b. Madhya Pradesh
c. Punjab
d. Haryana

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: The Great Indian Desert or the Rajasthan Desert is found in the western part of Rajasthan. Because of the lack of moisture, this region witnesses scanty rainfall. Also, because this region is very far from the sea, the rivers of this region have inland drainage.

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Question A.4:

Which one of the following states is not a part of thee Ganga basin?

a. Uttar Pradesh
b. Bihar
c. Rajasthan
d. Punjab

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: The Northern Plains of India are drained by several rivers, which make these plains very fertile. The Ganga Basin covers most part of these plains. It covers the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.

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Question A.5:

The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats meet at the ___________ hills.

a. Jaintia
b. Rajmahal
c. Mahadeo
d. Nilgiri

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats meet at the Nilgiri hills. The Western Ghats surround the Western Coastal Plains and the Eastern Ghats are the broken chain of mountains surrounding the Eastern Coastal Plains.

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Question A.6:

Which one of the following rivers is the longest river of the Peninsular India?

a. Godavari
b. Narmada
c. Krishna
d. Kaveri

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: Godavari is the longest river of peninsular India. It is the second longest river of India after Ganga. It is also known as Old Ganga. It drains into the Bay of Bengal.

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Question A.7:

The southern part of the Western coastal plan is called the _______ coast.

a. Konkan
b. Malabar
c. Coromandel
d. Northern Circars

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: India has a very long coastal boundary. The northern and southern parts of the Western Coastal Plains are known as the Konkan Coast and the Malabar Coast, respectively.

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Question A.8:

Which one of the following island is the largest of the lakshadweep group of island?

a. Agatti
b. Amindivi
c. Minicoy
d. Kavaratti

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: Lakshadweep Islands are a group of 36 islands. Out of them, Minicoy is the largest island with an area of almost five square kilometres.

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Question B:

1. The _________ glacier is in the Karakoram mountains.
2. River Brahmaputra is known as _________ in Tibet.
3. The penisular plateaus are composed of __________ and __________ rocks.
4. The ________ plateau is bounded by the Western coastal plain and the Eastern coastal plain.
5. The __________ and ________ island are in the Bay of Bengal.

Answer:

1. The Saichen or Baltoro glacier is in the Karakoram mountains.

Explanation: The Karakoram range extends between the Pamir Knot and the Indus river. It consists of a number of glaciers, including Siachen and Baltoro.

2. ​River Brahmaputra is known as Tsangpo in Tibet.

Explanation: The River Brahmaputra originates from Tibet, where it is known as Tsangpo. It enters the Indian territory from Arunachal Pradesh.

3. ​The penisular plateaus are composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks.​

Explanation: The peninsular plateaus are located in the southern part of the country. They are composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks and have rounded tops because of the flowing rivers.

4. ​​The Deccan plateau is bounded by the Western coastal plain and the Eastern coastal plain.​

Explanation: The Deccan Plateau is bounded on two sides by the Western and Eastern Coastal Plains. They extend from the Rann of Kutch in Gujarat to West Bengal.

5. ​​The Andaman and Nicobar islands are in the Bay of Bengal.​

Explanation: The Andaman and Nicobar Islands stretch for a distance of 600 kilometres in the Bay of Bengal. They are mountainous regions with thick forests. 

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Question C:

1. The Pamir Knot is popularly known as the 'Roof of the World'. ________
2. The northern plains are located between the Himalayas and the coastal plains. ________
3. River Narmada separates the Central Highlands from the Deccan plateaus. _______
4. The Kayals are mostly found along the Coromandel coast. __________

Answer:

1. The given statement is true.

Explanation: The Pamir Knot is also known as the Roof of the World owing to its great height. Many mountain ranges run from this knot, including the Karakoram and Himalayan ranges.

2. ​The given statement is false.

Explanation: The Northern Plains are fertile lands drained by a range of rivers like Ganga and Yamuna. They are located between the Himalayas and the Peninsular Plateau.

3. ​The given statement is true.

Explanation: The River Narmada originating from the Amarkantak Plateau divides the Peninsular Plateau into two parts: the Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau.

4. ​The given statement is false.

Explanation: The southern portion of the Western Coastal Plains is known as the Malabar Coast. In local language, the Kayals are the backwaters found along the Malabar Coast.

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Question D:

  Column A   Column B
1. Sunderbans a. Tributary of Ganga
2. Patkai Bum b. Arabian Sea
3. Ghaghara c. Central Highlands
4. Baghelkhand d. Delta
5. Lakshadweep e. Purvachal ranges

Answer:

The correct match is given below.
 

Column A Column B
1. Sundarbans d. Delta
2. Patkai Bum e. Purvanchal ranges
3. Ghaghara a. Tributary of Ganga
4. Baghelkhand c. Central Highlands
5. Lakshadweep b. Arabian Sea

Explanation:
 
1. Sundarbans -------> Delta

The Sundarbans Delta is the world's largest delta formed by the accumulation of silt brought by the River Ganga and its tributaries. It is a very fertile land formed by the confluence of rivers like Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna.


2. Patkai Bum ------> Purvanchal ranges

Patkai Bum is a low mountain range in the eastern Himalayas. It is located on the northeastern border of the Indian territory along with Myanmar.



3. Ghaghara --------> Tributary of Ganga

A tributary means a water stream that meets the main river. Ghaghara is a tributary of Ganga. It plays an important role in the formation of fertile soil in the Northern Plains.


4. Baghelkhand -------> Central Highlands

The Peninsular Plateau is divided by the River Narmada into two parts: the Deccan Plateau and the Central Highlands. The Central Highlands comprise plateaus made of igneous rocks and Baghelkhand is one of them.


5. Lakshadweep------> Arabian Sea

The Indian subcontinent has two groups of islands: the Lakshadweep Islands and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Lakshadweep Islands are a group of 36 small islands found in the Arabian Sea.



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Question E:

Give three examples of each of the following.

1. Mountain ranges of the Himalayas ___________
2. Hill ranges in the Purvachal _______________
3. Tributaries which join River Ganga from the south ______________
4. Hill ranges surrounding the peninsular plateaus ___________________
5. River which have formed deltas along the Eastern coastal plains ___________

Answer:

The three examples of each of the following are as under:

1. Mountain ranges of the Himalayas

  • Himadri
  • Himachal
  • Shiwalik
2. Hill ranges in the Purvachal
  • Patkai Bum and Naga Hills in the north
  • Garo, Khasi and Jaintia in the centre
  • Mizo in the south
3. Tributaries that join the River Ganga from the south
  • Sindh
  • Betwa
  • Ken
4. Hill ranges surrounding the Peninsular Plateaus
  • Aravallis
  • Satpuras
  • Western Ghats
​​5. Rivers that have formed deltas along the Eastern Coastal Plains
  • Godavari
  • ​Krishna
  • Kaveri
​​

Page No 90:

Question F:

1. Himachal
2. Purvahcal
3. Great Indian desert
4. Ganga basin
5. Central Highlands

Answer:

1. The three parallel ranges of the Himalayas are the Himadri, the Himachal and the Shiwaliks. The Himachal range lies towards the south of the Himadri. The range is also known as the Lesser Himalayas. A lot of hill stations are located in this range. Some of them are Nanital, Shimla, Mussoorie, Dehradun, Kullu and Manali.


2. The Purvanchal range is found on the eastern part of the Indian territory. It is made up of soft rocks, mud and silt. Hence, it is more prone to landslides. It comprises the following low hills:
  • Patkai Bum and Naga hills in the north
  • Garo, Khasi and Jantia in the centre
  • Mizo hills towards the south

3. The Great Indian Desert lies in the western part of the country in Rajasthan. It is also known as the Rajasthan Desert. It is the region with very less humidity and rainfall. Also, it is the only area in India that witnesses inland drainage.


 4. The Northern Plains of the Indian territory are drained by several rivers. Most of the area is drained by the River Ganga. The silt brought by the river has made the soil in these plains very fertile. Hence, agriculture is the major occupation of the people living in these plains. The Ganga Basin covers the states of Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. 


5. The Peninsular Plateau is divided by the River Narmada into two parts: the Deccan Plateau and the Central Highlands. The Central Highlands comprise plateaus made of igneous rocks. The rivers flowing from these highlands join the rivers Yamuna and Ganga from the southern direction.

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Question G:

1. Name two hill stations in the Lesser Himalayas.
2. Name a mountain pass located in the Pir Panjal range.
3. Which is an area of inland drainge in India?
4. Name the source of River Ganga.
5. What is the shape of the peninsular plateaus?
6. What is the other name given to the Western Ghats?
7. Name the two main groups of islands.

Answer:

 
1. Following are the names of the two hill stations located in the Lesser Himalayas:
  • Shimla
  • Dalhousie
2. Banihal Pass is located in the Pir Panjal range of the Lesser Himalayas. The Jammu and Kashmir region is linked with the rest of India by a highway​ passing through this pass.

3. The Great Indian Desert region of the western Rajasthan has inland drainage.

4. The River Ganga originates from the Gangotri glacier in the Himalayas. Its two head streams, Alaknanda and Bhagirathi, meet at Devprayag and form Ganga.

5. The Peninsular Plateau is the oldest physical feature of the Indian subcontinent. It is triangular in shape and is surrounded by hills from three sides and by the Northern Plains from one side.

6. The Western Ghats run along the western side of the Indian territory. They are also known as the Shayadris. They consist of several mountain ranges.

7. Following are the names of the two main island groups of the Indian subcontinent:
  • Lakshadweep Islands
  • ​Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Page No 90:

Question H.1:

Name the physical divisions of India.

Answer:

Following are the physical divisions of India:

  • The northern mountains
  • The northern plains
  • The peninsular plateaus
  • The coastal plains
  • The islands

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Question H.2:

What is the importance of the northern plains of India?

Answer:

The importance of the Northern Plains can be understood with the help of the following points:
  • They are formed by the deposits of alluvium and silt brought by the rivers flowing through the northern mountains. Hence, the soil is very fertile in these plains, which makes agriculture a prime occupation of the people living here.
  • They provide a flat surface for the construction of buildings, roads and many other infrastructural projects.
  • The rivers provide water for irrigation and drinking purposes.
  • The climatic conditions prevailing in these plains also support agriculture here.

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Question H.3:

Describe the location of hill ranges in the peninsular plateaus.

Answer:

The Peninsular Plateau is triangular in shape and bounded on all sides by hill ranges. 
  • The northern portion of the plateau is bounded by the Aravallis, the Vindhayas, the Satpuras and the Rajmahal hills.
  • The western portion is bounded by the Western Ghats that stretch along the western border of the country.
  • The eastern portion is bounded by the Eastern Ghats that run discontinuously along the eastern border of the country.

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Question H.4:

Write about the islands of India.

Answer:

The Indian subcontinent includes two island groups along with the main landmass. These are Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Lakshadweep Islands are a group of 36 small islands located in the Arabian Sea, whereas ​the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a group of 572 small islands located in the Bay of Bengal.

Page No 90:

Question I.1:

Distinguish between the Himadri and the Shiwalik.

Answer:

Himadri Shiwaliks
It is also known as the Greater Himalayas. They are also known as the Outer Himalayas.
The Himadri is the highest mountain range in the world. These ranges are located towards the eastern part of India and consist of low hills.
Most of the peaks are covered with snow throughout the year. These ranges are formed by soft rocks, mud and silt, so they are more prone to landslides.
Vegetation is less because of extremely low temperature. These mountain ranges are covered with dense forests and consist of a variety of flora and fauna.
High peaks like Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga are located here. Low hill ranges like Patkai Bum, Mizo Hills, Garo, Khasi and Jaintia are located here.

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Question I.2:

Explain the main features of the peninsular plateaus.

Answer:

The main features of the Peninsular Plateau are as follows:
  • It is the oldest structure of the Indian subcontinent formed by igneous and metamorphic rocks.
  • Because of the continuous action of river water, it has a rounded top Also, hills in this region are relatively low.
  • It is surrounded by hills on all three sides, i.e. the Aravallis, the Rajmahal and the Vindhayas in the north, the Western Ghats in the west and the Eastern Ghats in the east.
  • These hills are a source of many rivers like Narmada, Godavari and Krishna.
  • The soil of the Peninsular Plateau is black and rich in minerals; hence it supports a large variety of vegetation.

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Question I.3:

Compare the rivers of the Deccan plateau with those of the Himalays.

Answer:

Rivers of the Himalayas
  • The source of these rivers is glaciers. Hence, they flow throughout the year.
  • They flow through high hills and mountains, so the rate of soil erosion is very high.
  • They are perennial in nature; they are snow-fed and hence are not dependent on rainfall.
  • Since they flow through high mountains, they have a potential for the generation of hydroelectricity. 
Rivers of the Deccan Plateau
  • The source of these rivers is not snow. Hence, they are seasonal and dry out during summer.
  • They do not flow through high hills, so the rate of erosion is very low.
  • They move at a slow pace over gentle slopes.
  • They are much smaller and less deep than the Himalayan rivers.

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Question I.4:

Compare the Western coastal plains and the Eastern coastal plains.

Answer:

 

Western Coastal Plains Eastern Coastal Plains
They run from the Rann of Kutch in Gujarat to Kanyakumari in the south. They run from West Bengal to Kanyakumari in the south.
They are less wide as compared to the Eastern Coastal Plains. They are much widerr a stretch of land along the sea coast.
The rivers along these plains form estuaries. The rivers flowing along these plains form a delta.

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Question I.5:

Why is India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh called the Indian subcontinent?

Answer:

A subcontinent is an area that stands out distinctively from the rest of the continent, both geographically and culturally. India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh are called the Indian subcontinent because the territories of these lands are separated from the rest of the continent by the Himalayas. Along with their geographical homogeneity, these countries share a long history. India had a great cultural influence on these nations. Hence, these nations are collectively referred to as the Indian subcontinent.

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Question I.6:

Why is the Ganga-Brahmaputra plain the most fertile region of India?

Answer:

The Northern Plains of the Indian territory form a major part of the Indian landmass. These plains are often referred to as the ​GangaBrahmaputra Plains because they have been formed as a result of the accumulation of a huge amount of silt and alluvium depositied by rivers over a period of time. This resulted in the formation of thick layers of fertile soil that vary from one place to another. They are suitable for cultivation. Hence, this region is considered the most fertile region in the world.

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Question I.7:

Why is the Rajasthan plain an area of inland drainage?

Answer:

The Rajasthan Plain is also known as the Great Indian Desert. It is the western part of the Indian mainland. Since this region lacks moisture and humidity and witnesses high temperature, there is lack of rainfall. The rivers here are rain-fed. Also, since Rajasthan is very far from the Arabian Sea, the rivers in this region cannot reach the sea. As a result, they get drained in the land itself. This is called inland drainage.

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Question I.8:

Why are the rivers of peninsular plateaus non-perennial?

Answer:

The rivers of the Peninsular Plateau do not originate from mountains; they have their origin in small hills and plateaus. They are not formed by the melting of the snow. Hence, they depend upon rainfall for maintenance of their flow. This is the reason the Deccan rivers are seasonal and not perennial. They dry out in summers and during monsoon, the flow in these rivers increases.



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