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#### Question A.1:

The total number of parallels at an interval of 5° are

a. 37
b. 36
c. 19
d. 42

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: The total number of parallels at an interval of 5° is 37 (18 in each hemisphere plus the Equator).

#### Question A.2:

The distance between any two latitudes on the earth's surface located at an interval of one degree is about

a. 111 km
b. 111 miles
c. 111 nautical miles
d. 111 m

The correct answer is option is (a).

Explanation: The circles drawn parallel to the Equator are known as parallels or latitudes. They are drawn at an interval of one degree, which is equal to 111 kilometres on the Earth's surface.

#### Question A.3:

In which hemisphere is the Antarctic Circle located?

a. Northern
b. Eastern
c. Southern
d. Western

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: The Antarctic Circle is located in the Southern Hemisphere.

#### Question A.4:

When was it decided to make Greenwich the 0° longitude?

a. 1883
b. 1884
c. 1885
d. 1886

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: Greenwich was made the Prime Meridian in 1884 during the International Meridian Conference.

#### Question A.5:

The Prime Meridian passes through which country?

a. UAE
b. Australia
c. USA
d. UK

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: The Prime Meridian passes through Greenwich, UK.

#### Question A.6:

The total number of meridians at an interval of 5° are

a. 73
b. 71
c. 72
d. 79

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: The total number of longitudes at an interval of 5° is 73.

#### Question A.7:

The two meridians which can from a great circle are

a. 0° and 360°
b. 180° E and 180° W
c. 115° E and 140° E
d. 90° E and 90° W

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: The two meridians that form a circle are at 0° and 360°. As we know that great circles are the largest circles that can be drawn on the globe, 0° and 360°, which divide the Earth into two equal halves, will form the great circle.

#### Question A.8:

The standard meridian of India has been chosen at

a. 75.0 E
b. 82.30° W
c. 85° E
d. 82.30° E

The correct answer is option (d).

The standard meridian of India is 82°E. It passes through Allahabad. India has a standard time, IST, which is five hours and thirty minutes ahead of GMT.

#### Question B:

1. The two ends of the earth's axis are called the ___________
2. The network of parallels and meridians is called the __________
3. The maximum distance between any two meridians is at the _________
4. There are _________ time zones in Russia.

1. The correct answer is  poles.

Explanation: Poles are the northernmost and the southernmost parts of the Earth.

2. The correct answer is  Earth’s grid or geographic grid.

Explanation:  The network of longitudes and latitudes intersecting each other to form a web is known as a grid.

3. The correct answer is Equator.

Explanation:  The distance between two meridians is the maximum at the Equator, which is about 111 kms.

4. The correct answer is 11 .

Explanation: Russia's east-west extent is immense and thus incorporates several longitudes.

#### Question C:

1. The shape of the earth is like a sphere. _________
2. The equator is the largest circle which can be drawn on a globe. ________
3. The Prime Meridian is the longest meridian on a globe. _________
4. The number of parallels and meridians are the same on the globe. _________

1) This statement is true
Explanation: The shape of the Earth is like a sphere, but it is not a perfect sphere, as it is slightly flattened at the poles and has a bulge at the Equator.

2) This statement is true
Explanation: The equator is the largest circle that can be drawn on the globe. This is because the equatorial diameter of the Earth is the largest.

3) This statement is false
Explanation: The Prime Meridian is not the longest meridian on the globe. All meridians are of the same length.

4) This statement is false
Explanation: There are 181 parallels and 360 meridians on the Earth.

#### Question D:

Name at least two countries through which the following latitude pass.

1. Tropic of Cancer
2. Equator
3. Prime Meridian
4. Tropic of Capricorn

1. Tropic of Cancer:  India and Mexico
2. Equator: Brazil and Kenya
3. Prime Meridian: UK and Spain
4. Tropic of Capricorn: Australia and Brazil

#### Question E:

 Column A Column B 1. Prime Meridian a. Hottest region 2. Equator b. Greenwich 3. Torrid zone c. Poles 4. Axis d. Great circle

1. Prime Meridian                          b. Greenwich
2. Equator                                       d. Great circle
3. Torrid Zone                                 a. Hottest zone
4. Axis                                             c. Poles

 Column A Column B 1. Prime Meridian a. Greenwich 2. Equator b. Great Circle 3. Torrid Zone c. Hottest Zone 4. Axis d. Poles

#### Question F:

Distinguish between the following.

1. Parallels and meridians
2. Local time and standard time
3. Latitude and longitude
4. Torrid zone and frigid zone

1.

 Parallels Meridians These are the circles between the North and South Poles; they help in locating places in the north and south directions. These are the lines joining the North and South Poles; they help in locating places in the east and west directions. There are 181 parallels. There are 360 meridians.

2.
 Latitudes Longitudes These are the circles between the North and South Poles; they help in locating places in the north and south directions. These are the lines joining the North and South Poles; they help in locating places in the east and west directions. These are also known as parallels. These are also known as meridians.

3.
 Local time Standard Time It is the time of a place determined according to the longitude of that place. It is the time of a place located on the standard meridian of a country.

4.
 Torrid Zone Frigid Zone It is located between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. It is located to the north of the Arctic Circle and the south of the Antarctic Circle. The zone receives maximum amount of heat from the Sun. The zone receives minimum amount of heat from the Sun.

#### Question G:

Explain the following terms (in 30 words).

1. Equator
2. Earth's grid
3. Heat zones
4. Great circle
5. Prime Meridian
6. Time zones

1. Equator: It is an imaginary line drawn midway between the North and South Poles. It divides the Earth into two equal parts, the North Hemisphere and the South Hemisphere.

2. Earth’s grid: The network of parallels or latitudes and meridians or longitudes that divide the Earth’s surface into a grid-like pattern is called the Earth’s grid or geographic grid.

3. Heat zones: The Earth is divided into three heat zones based on the amount of heat each part receives from the Sun. These three heat zones are the Torrid Zone, the Temperate Zone and the Frigid Zone.

4. Great circle: The Equator is known as the great circle, as it is the largest circle that can be drawn on the globe. This is because the equatorial diameter of the Earth is the largest.

5. Prime Meridian: It is the longitude that passes through Greenwich, a place near London in the UK. It is treated as the reference point. Places to the east and west of the Prime Meridian are measured in degrees.

6. Time zones: A time zone is a narrow belt of the Earth’s surface, which has an ​east‒west extent of 15 degrees of longitude. The world has been divided into 24 standard time zones.

#### Question H.1:

The north pole always points towards which star?

The North Pole always points towards the North Star.

#### Question H.2:

What are the lines of latitudes also called?

The lines of latitude are also known as parallels.

#### Question H.3:

Which parallels are not circles?

The North and South Poles are not circles; they are points.

#### Question H.4:

Which is the largest parallel on the globe?

The Equator is the largest parallel on the globe.

#### Question H.5:

The Tropic of Capricorn is located at which latitude?

The Tropic of Capricorn is located at 23°30’S.

#### Question H.6:

The Arctic Circle is located in which hemisphere?

The Arctic Circle is located in the Northern Hemisphere.

#### Question H.7:

What are the lines of longitudes also called?

The lines of longitude are also known as meridians.

#### Question H.8:

What is the other name given to the 0° meridian?

The 0° meridian is also known as the Prime Meridian.

#### Question H.9:

The world is divided into how many time zones?

The world is divided into 24 standard time zones.

#### Question I.1:

How is the axis of the earth useful in locating places on the globe?

The end points of the Earth’s axis are known as Poles. The Earth is divided into two halves by an imaginary line between the two Poles. A network of parallels or latitudes and meridians or longitudes can hence be drawn based on the positions of the Poles.

#### Question I.2:

Compare the features of the torrid zone and temperature zone.

Torrid Zone: It is located between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. It receives the maximum amount of heat from the Sun.
Temperate Zone: It is located outside the Torrid Zone, towards the Poles. Here, the noon Sun is never overhead and the rays of the Sun are slanting. It is therefore less hot than the Torrid Zone.

#### Question I.3:

What are the advantages of having parallels and meridians?

The lines of longitude are also known as meridians and the lines of latitude are also known as parallels. This network of parallels and meridians divides the Earth’s surface into a grid-like pattern and is used for locating different places on the Earth.

#### Question I.4:

Name any four countries which have more than one time zone.

Four countries having more than one time zone are USA, Canada, Russia and Australia.

#### Question J.1:

What are the main characteristics of the parallels?

Following are the main characteristics of parallels:

1. All parallels are perfect circles except the North and South Poles.
2. The Equator is the largest parallel.
3. The lengths of the parallels decrease, as they move away from the Equator.
4. All parallels are equidistant from each other.
5. The distance between any two parallels at an interval of 1 degree is 111 kilometres.

#### Question J.2:

What are the main characteristics of the meridians?

Following are the main characteristics of meridians:

1. The lengths of all meridians are the same, as all of them are semicircles which connect the two poles.
2. Any two opposite meridians when taken together form a complete circle.
3. The maximum distance between any two meridians is at the Equator.
4. The distance between any two meridians is decreases as one moves away the Equator as all the meridians meet at the poles.

#### Question J.3:

What is the relationship between longitude and time? Give examples.

The Earth rotates 360° of longitude in 24 hours, which means that for 1-degree rotation of longitude, the Earth takes 4 minutes. As the Earth rotates, every meridian on it faces the Sun at least once. As the Earth rotates from west to east, the places situated to the east of the Prime Meridian have sunrise earlier than those situated to its west.
The time difference between any two places is due to the difference in longitudes between those places. For example, Kolkata is located at 90°E longitude and London at 0°. The time difference is thus 6 hours between the two.

#### Question J.4:

What is the purpose of having time zones?

Countries like Russia, Canada and USA have a large ​east‒west stretch. We know that as the time at any place depends on the longitude of that place, a large longitudinal extent thus can lead to non-uniformity in time within different places in the same country. Thus, to avoid this, in 1884, the world was divided into 24 standard time zones to ensure uniformity and predictability in the time zones.

#### Question J.5:

Why is the standard time of Bangladesh half an hour ahead of India?

In 1884, the world was divided into 24 standard time zones. Now, each belt is a narrow belt running from north to south, with an east-west extent of 15 degrees. A meridian passing through the centre of each time zone has been selected to give the standard time of that zone. The standard time of Bangladesh is ahead of India by half an hour, as its standard meridian is 7.5° to the east of India’s standard meridian.

#### Question J.6:

Why is standard time needed for every country?

The local time of the standard meridian is taken as the local time for the whole country. This concept of standard time for the whole country is needed because time varies with change in longitudes. If all places on different meridians follow their own local time, there would be confusion and chaos.

#### Question J.7:

For every degree of longitude the time difference is four minutes. Explain.

The Earth rotates 360° of longitude in 24 hours. This means that for 1 degree change in longitude, the corresponding change in time is 4 minutes. Thus, a place that is 1° to the east of another place is ahead by 4 minutes.

#### Question J.8:

How does the time of a place depend on its longitude?