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Page No 73:

Question A.1:

Which one of the following is not an agent of erosion and deposition?

a. Running water
b. Glacier
c. Wind
d. Volcanoes

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: The main agents of erosion and deposition are winds, running water, glaciers and sea waves. Volcanoes are not an agent of erosion and deposition. 

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Question A.2:

Which one of the following is not a mountain?

a. Rockies
b. Andes
c. Prairies
d. Apennine

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: The Prairies are not mountains. They are grasslands of the North American continent. The Rockies are a mountain range of North America, the Andes are a mountain range of South America and the Apennines are a mountain range of Europe.

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Question A.3:

Which one of the following is not a fold mountain?

a. Kilimanjaro
b. Rockies
c. Himalayas
d. Aravallis

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: The Himalayas and the Rockies are of recent origin. Hence, they are called young fold mountains. The Aravallis, on the other hand, are comparatively old, so they are called old fold mountains. But Kilimanjaro does not fit into either category; it was formed by a volcanic eruption.

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Question A.4:

Which one of the following is not a volcanic mountain?

a. Cotopaxi
b. Fujiyama
c. Karakoram
d. Rainier

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: Cotopaxi in South America, Fujiyama in Japan and Rainier in the USA are mountains of volcanic origin. These mountains are formed by the solidification of lava erupted from volcanos. Karakoram is a part of the Himalayan mountain system formed by folding.

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Question A.5:

Which one of the following relief features is also known as tablelands?

a. Mountains
b. Hills
c. Plains
d. Plateaus

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: Plateaus are the land masses that rise abruptly from the neighbouring areas with steep slopes. Their top is either rounded or flat. Owing to their large area, they are also known as tablelands.

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Question A.6:

Which one of the following is not a plateau?

a. Columbia
b. Pampas
c. Bolivia
d. Bie

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: Among the given alternatives, the Columbian Plateau in the USA, the Bolivian Plateau in the Andes and the Bie Plateau in South Africa are categorised as plateaus. The Pampas, on the other hand, are the grasslands of South America.

 

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Question A.7:

The highest plateau in the world is the plateau of

a. Tibet
b. Patagonia
c. Deccan
d. Hoggar

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: The Tibetan Plateau is the highest plateau in the world. It covers the area around Central Asia and the north of the Himalayas. It is approximately 4,500 metres high.

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Question A.8:

Which one of the following occupations is closely associated with the plain areas of the world?

a. Farming
b. Mining
c. Forestry
d. Hunting

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: Plains are flat and low-lying areas. Since they are formed by the deposition of sand and silt brought by rivers, they are very fertile. This is the reason farming is the main occupation of the people living in these areas.



Page No 74:

Question B:

1. The forces which originate from within the earth are called __________ forces.
2. The wearing away of the earth's surface is called __________.
3. A mountain __________ has several parallel, long and narrow ranges.
4. Big cities are located in the ___________.

Answer:

1. The forces which originate from within the earth are called tectonic forces.

Explanation: Tectonic forces originate from within the Earth's surface. They cause irregularities on the surface of the Earth, thereby forming highlands and lowlands.

2. ​The wearing away of the earth's surface is called erosion.

Explanation: Erosion is the phenomenon of the removal of the top layer of the Earth's surface through the action of agents like air, running water and glaciers.

3. ​A mountain chain has several parallel, long and narrow ranges.

Explanation: In a mountain chain, there are numerous long mountain ranges running parallel to each other. For example, the Himalayan mountain chain is divided into the higher, middle and lower Himalayas.
 
4. ​Big cities are located in the plains.

Explanation: Plains are wide stretches of land at a relatively low height. They are the fertile lands formed by the deposition of sand and silt brought by rivers. Hence, they are densely populated. This is the reason big cities are located in plains.

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Question C:

Write two examples of each of the following.

1. Fold mountains
2. Block mountains
3. Volcanic mountains
4. Intermontane plateaus
5. Continental plateaus
6. Lava plateaus

Answer:

1. The examples of fold mountains are given below.

  • The Himalayas in Asia
  • The Rockies in North America
2. ​The examples of block mountains are given below.​
  • The Black Forest in Germany
  • The Salt Range in Pakistan
3. ​The examples of volcanic mountains are as under:
  • Mount Vesuvius in Italy
  • Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa
4. ​The examples of intermontane plateaus are given below.​
  • The Plateau of Bolivia in the Andes
  • The Tibetan Plateau in Asia
5. ​The examples of continental plateaus are given below.​
  • The Ranchi Plateau in India
  • The Potwar Plateau in Pakistan
6. ​The examples of lava plateaus are given below.​
  • The Columbian Plateau in the USA
  • The Malwa Plateau in India

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Question D:

1. The tectonic forces originate from within the earth. ___________
2. A cordillera is a French term which stands for several mountain systems. ________
3. The plateaus are the youngest landforms on earth. ___________
4. The river valleys in the plains have been the cradle of civilization. _________

Answer:

1. The given statement is true.

Explanation: Tectonic forces originate within the Earth's surface. They cause irregularities on the surface of the Earth, thereby forming highlands and lowlands.

2. ​The given statement is false.

Explanation: Cordillera is a Spanish term that stands for several mountain systems. They stretch over a large area of a continent.

3. ​The given statement is false.

Explanation: Plateaus are land masses that rise abruptly from the neighbouring areas with steep slopes. Their top is either rounded or flat. They are the oldest landforms on the Earth.

4. ​The given statement is true.

Explanation: Plains are wide stretches of land at relatively low height. They are fertile lands formed by the deposition of sand and silt brought by rivers. River valleys were the cradles of civilisation in ancient times.

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Question E:

Distinguish between the following.

1. Tectonic and gradational forces
2. Erosion and deposition
3. Mountain range and mountain system
4. Plateaus and plains

Answer:

1. 

Tectonic Forces Gradational Forces
They originate within the Earth's surface. They originate outside the surface of the Earth.
They create irregularities on the surface of the Earth. They modify the already existing irregularities on the Earth's surface.

2. 
Erosion Deposition
It is the weathering of the surface of the Earth. It is the rebuilding of the Earth's surface.
The agents of erosion are air, running water, glaciers, etc. Deposition takes place after erosion.
Erosion results in the denuding of the Earth's surface. It results in the formation of new landforms like plains and mountains.

3. 
Mountain Range Mountain System
It is a series of mountains and hills with high peaks It consists of several mountain ranges.
It is arranged in a line. It is arranged in a parallel, separated by valleys.

4. 
Plateaus Plains
Plateaus are land masses that rise abruptly from neighbouring areas with steep slopes. Plains are formed by the deposition of silt brought by rivers.
Their top is either rounded or flat. They are fertile lowlands that are generally very flat.
Example: The Tibetan Plateau of Asia Example: The Northern Plains of India

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Question F:

1. Fold mountains
2. Block mountains
3. Volcanic mountains
4. Intermontane plateaus
5. Continental plateaus
6. Plains

Answer:

1. Fold mountains: These mountains are formed by the folding of tectonic layers within the Earth's surface. They are of two types: young fold mountains and old fold mountains. The Himalayas and the Rockies are of recent origin; hence, they are called young fold mountains. The Aravallis, on the other hand, are comparatively old, so they are called old fold mountains.

2. Block mountains: The horizontal movement of plates results into cracks and faults on the Earth's surface. With the breaking of these faults, blocks emerge. When they rise to a high elevation, they are referred to as block mountains. They have steep slopes and flat tops. One example is the Black Forest in Germany.

3. Volcanic mountains: These mountains are formed as a result of the solidification of the lava that comes of the volcanos and gets accumulated near their mouth. Cotopaxi in South America, Fujiyama in Japan and Rainier in the USA are the mountains of volcanic origin.

4. Intermontane plateaus: These are the plateaus that are enclosed between high mountains. They are very high and complex structures of the Earth. For example, the Tibetan Plateau is the highest plateau in the world. It is bounded by the Himalayas and covers a large part of Asia and Central Asia.

5. Continental plateaus: The plateaus that rise abruptly from either seas or lowlands are referred to as continental plateaus. The Potwar Plateau in Pakistan and the Ranchi Plateau in India are continental plateaus. 

6. Plains: They are the lowlands formed by the deposition of silt caused by the running water of rivers. The silt and sand brought by the rivers get deposited and result into the formation of plains. These areas are generally very fertile; hence, they are densely populated, for example, the Northern Plains of India.

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Question G:

1. Name a fold mountain in North America.
2. Name a block mountain in Europe.
3. Name a volcanic mountain in Indonesia.
4. Name the highest plateau in the world.
5. Name lava plateau in India.
6. What is the plain of Argentina called?

Answer:

1. Fold mountain in North America - The Rockies

2. ​Block mountain in Europe - The Black Forest in Germany  

3. ​Volcanic mountain in Indonesia - Krakatao

4. ​Highest plateau in the world - The Tibetan Plateau in Asia
 
5. ​Lava plateau in India - The Deccan and Malwa Plateau
 
6. Plains of Argentina - The Pampas

Page No 74:

Question H.1:

Classify mountains on the basis of their origin. Explain each type.

Answer:

On the basis of origin, mountains can be classified into the following three categories:

1. Fold mountains: These mountains are formed by the folding of tectonic layers within the Earth's surface. They are of two types: young fold mountains and old fold mountains. The Himalayas and the Rockies are of recent origin; hence, they are known as young fold mountains. The Aravallis, on the other hand, are comparatively old, so they are called old fold mountains.

2. Block mountains: The horizontal movement of plates results into cracks and faults on the Earth's surface. With the breaking of these faults, blocks emerge. When they rise to a high elevation, they are referred to as block mountains. They have steep slopes and flat tops. One example is the Black Forest in Germany.

3. Volcanic mountains: These mountains are formed as a result of the solidification of the lava that is vented out of volcanos and gets accumulated near their mouth. Cotopaxi in South America, Fujiyama in Japan and Rainier in the USA are the mountains of volcanic origin.

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Question H.2:

Explain the processes involved in the formation of mountains.

Answer:

There occurs continuous movements within the surface of the Earth. These movements are caused by tectonic forces. They originate within the Earth's surface and cause irregularities on the surface of the Earth. They result in the subsidence of the surface. The gradational forces modify these irregularities to form several landforms like mountains, plateaus and plains. Volcanic mountains are formed by the solidification of the lava near the vents of volcanos. 

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Question H.3:

How are mountains useful to us?

Answer:

Mountains are useful to us in the following ways:

  • They cause winds to rise, causing the condensation of moisture.
  • They are effective barriers against the hot and cold winds. For example, the Himalayas protect the Indian mainland from cold Siberian winds.
  • The slopes of mountains have a rich variety of forests and grasslands.
  • Mountains are a major source of origin of rivers, which provide water for irrigation.
  • They are important tourist destinations during summers.
  • They are a storehouse of several minerals.
  • The rock material found in mountains is used in construction.

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Question H.4:

How do mountains differ from plateaus?

Answer:

The difference between mountains and plateaus can be understood with the help of the table given below.
 

Mountains Plateaus
Mountains are huge land masses that rise to a height of more than 900 metres from the sea level. Plateaus are land masses that rise from the neighbouring areas with steep slopes. 
They mostly have conical and pointed hilly tops. Their top is flat.
They are the sources of origin of several rivers that flow across them. Rivers make deep cuts into valleys and form canyons.
For example, the Himalayas are the highest mountain range in the world. For example, the Tibetan Plateau is the highest plateau in the world.

Page No 74:

Question H.5:

What is the significance of plains for human beings?

Answer:

Plains are found in low-lying areas that barely have any difference between their highest and lowest points. They are generally formed by the phenomena of erosion and deposition caused by the running water of rivers. The silt and alluvium brought by the rivers result in fertile soil, which, in turn, promotes agriculture in these areas. As a result, agriculture is the prime occupation of people living in plains. Due to this, these plains are densely populated. It also results in the growth of the service sector that aims to provide good facilities to the people residing in these areas. 

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Question H.6:

Why are the mountainous region sparsely populated?

Answer:

Mountainous regions are sparsely populated because of the following reasons:

  • Life is very difficult in terrain.
  • ​The uneven topography makes it very difficult to build basic infrastructure, which includes roads and houses.
  • Facilities like hospitals, schools and banks are inaccessible to the people living in these areas.
  • The extreme low temperature too proves hostile for a easy and comfortable life.  Combined with topography, it is a barrier to large scale agriculture.

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Question H.7:

Why are the river valleys thickly populated?

Answer:

River valleys are thickly populated because of the following reasons:

  • Rivers provide water, which is essential for several household and industrial purposes.
  • The silt brought by rivers results in the formation of alluvial soil, which is very fertile.
  • Farming is the major occupation of people living in these areas.
  • River valleys are easily accessible. Therefore, people prefer to live in plains.

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Question H.8:

Life in the mountainous region is difficult. Explain.

Answer:

Life in mountainous regions is very difficult owing to the below-mentioned reasons:

  • The uneven topography makes it difficult to build proper infrastructure in the form of roads, hospitals, schools, etc.
  • Access to these regions is very difficult and very risky too.
  • Generally, the temperature in these regions is very low; this makes it difficult for the people to stay there.
  • The land available for cultivation is very less. Hence, people are dependent on plains for their needs.
  • The hilly areas are far-flung; hence, the development in these areas is slow.



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