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Question A1:

_______________ began to be used on a much larger scale.
a. Copper
b. Iron
c. Bricks
d. Stone

Answer:

The correct answer is option (b).

Explanation: The increased use of iron enabled clearing of forests and extensive cultivation. This led to the expansion of janapadas to mahajanapadas.

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Question A2:

The small tribes of the earlier period gave way to large kingdoms called
a. janapadas
b. mahajanapadas
c. republics
d. monarchies

Answer:

The correct answer is (a).

Explanation: Janapadas were small territories where the initiation of modern kingdoms was formed. However, with time, one janapada overtook another to expand and grow. Thus, janapadas led to mahajanapadas.

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Question A3:

There were _______________ mahajanapadas in the Ganga valley in the sixth century BC.
a. 18
b. 17
c. 15
d. 16

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).
Explanation: During the sixth century BC, sixteen janapadas rose to grow and gain popularity as compared to others and thus referred to as the mahajanapadas.

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Question A4:

Magadha and ______________ are examples of monarchical mahajanapadas.
a. Shakyas
b. Lichchhavis
c. Vatsa
d. Vajji

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: The mahajanapadas of the sixth century BC usually had two types of governments, monarchical and republican. Monarchical mahajanapadas like Magadha and Vatsa were ruled by a king or a queen and were therefore called monarchical.

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Question A5:

The farmers gave ______________ of their produce to the king which was called bhaga.
a. one-sixth
b. one-third
c. one-fourth
d. one-half

Answer:

The correct answer is option (a).

Explanation: Bhaga was a kind of land revenue that was required to be paid in kind. This revenue was fixed at one-sixth of produce.

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Question A6:

________________, the king of Magadha, built roads and bridges throughout his empire.
a. Mahapadma Nanda
b. Shishunaga
c. Ajatashatru
d. Bimbisara

Answer:

The correct answer is option (d).

Explanation: Bimbisara, the king of Magadha, built roads and bridges throughout his empire and that led to the establishment of Magadha as a strong and efficiently managed mahajanapada.

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Question A7:

The varnas were based on
a. height
b. colour
c. religion
d. birth

Answer:

The correct answer is (b).

Explanation: As per varna system, the son of a brahmin will be a brahmin and that of a kshatriya will be a kshatriya.

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Question A8:

__________________ was the capital of the Lichchhavis.
a. Kaushambi
b. Tamralipti
c. Vaishali
d. Ujjayini

Answer:

The correct answer is option (c).

Explanation: Vaishali was the capital city of the republic of Lichchhavis. It was the place where Lord Mahavira was born and therefore, it is regarded as a significant pilgrimage spot for the Jains.

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Question B:

1. There are no literary sources for this period. _____________
2. All kings performed the horse sacrifice. _____________
3. The republics were ruled by a king. _____________
4. The varna system was liked by all _____________

Answer:

 

  1. The statement is false.
  2. The statement is false.
  3. The statement is false.
  4. The statement is false.

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Question C1:

What are the sources that tell us about the early kingdoms?

Answer:

Various literary sources provide information about the early kingdoms. These include the Buddhist literature like the Jataka tales as well as the Vedic literature. 

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Question C2:

Write a short note on monarchical mahajanapadas.

Answer:

​​Monarchical Mahajanapadas were those places where the head of the kingdom, or the king, was hereditary. They were sixteen in number. Magadha, Koshala, Avanti, etc., were some of the important monarchical mahajanapadas. 

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Question C3:

Besides agriculture, what were the other sources of revenue?

Answer:

Besides taxes on agriculture, there were taxes imposed on various services like those on weavers, carpenters, smiths and craftsmen. Apart from that, trade was also taxed and it provided substantial revenue to the king.  

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Question C4:

How did towns emerge? Name some important towns of this period.

Answer:

With the passage of time, villages gradually developed into towns. Most of these towns grew around centres of trade and commerce. Some of the important towns were Ayodhya, Vaishali, Kaushambi and Champa. 

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Question D1:

How did the small tribes of earlier period give way to large kingdoms?

Answer:

The main reason for the gradual development of large kingdoms from small tribes was the beginning of use of iron. With the help of iron tools, the dense forests of the Ganga valley region, which had hitherto not allowed expansion in the region, were cleared. This freed up more land for agriculture and eventually the smaller, fragmented tribes made way for larger and coherent kingdoms, known as janapadas. 

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Question D2:

What changes in agriculture helped farmers to produce more?

Answer:

Following were the two main changes in agriculture that helped the farmers to produce more:

1. The iron plough came to be used extensively, which was a major improvement over the use of wooden plough.

2. The development of the practice of transplanting paddy, which ensured that more plants survived and more grains were produced.

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Question D3:

Which factors led to an increase in trade during this period?

Answer:

​Trade got a boost in Mauryan period through the use of money. Until that time, barter system was used to carry out trade activities. With the use of money, the use of copper and silver coins, trade increased. Besides, some rulers such as Bimbisara focussed on the development of infrastructure like roads and bridges that improved connectivity and trade.

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Question D4:

Name the four varnas. What tasks did each perform?

Answer:

The name of four Varnas were as follows:

1. Brahmanas: They were considered as the superior class. They were expected to teach the Vedas and perform religious rituals and sacrifices.
2. Kshatriyas: They were the warrior groups and fought wars. They were the ruling class.
3. Vaishyas: They were involved in trade-related and agriculture-related activities. They were the only tax payers of that period.
4. Shudras: They served the other three Varnas and were considered to carry out menial task of the society.

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Question D5:

How was an iron plough better than that of wood?

Answer:

An iron plough was better than a wooden plough because iron is stronger than wood. So it can be used to grow crops in harder and rough terrain. Thus, the area under cultivation increased. Moreover, an iron plough is heavier and sharper than its wooden counterpart and is therefore better at tilling and ploughing. 

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Question D6:

Why is the use of money better than barter in trade?

Answer:

With the advent of money, in the form of silver and copper coins, trade began to flourish. Use of money was an improvement over the existing barter system because money brought uniformity in trade and commerce, both through the kingdom and between different kingdoms. Moreover, the use of money hastened and simplified the trade process and removed discrepancies and discretion. The need for double coincidence of wants was also overcome. This meant trading could take place at any moment when one person has excess supply of a particular good and the other person is in need of the same. There was no more the requisite for both the parties to offer the goods demanded by each other.



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